OCR 2010 A2 Biology Unit 2 - Control, Genome and Environment Watch

student92
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Biotechnology

Industrial use of living organisms or parts of living organisms to produce foods, drugs and other products.

Microorganisms are used in biotechnological processes because:
- grow rapidly
- do not need complex growth conditions
- can be genetically engineered to produce specific products
- carry out complex processes
- small, so can be grown in large numbers in a small volume
- can be grown in a lab, not influenced by climate.


Standard growth curve

Limiting factors affecting population growth are:
- depletion of O2
- depletion of nutrients
- accumulation of toxic or acidic waste products.


The standard growth curve of a microorganism in a closed culture



Lag phase
- Bacteria adjusts to surronding conditions
- reproduction rate is fast
- cells absorb nutrients
- cell expansion, activating specific genes and synthesising specific genes
- length depends on growing conditions.

Exponential phase (log phase)
- Reproduction rate is fast
- number of bacteria doubles every 20-30 minutes
- enough space, nutrients to reproduce
- log to the base 10 of the number of bacteria against time

Stationary phase (stable phase)
- Nutrient levels decrease
- waste products build up
- death rate = reproduction rate
- no growth occurs

Death phase (decline phase)
- Nutrient exhaustion
- increased levels of toxic waste products and secondary metabolites
- death rate > reproduction rate
- eventually all the bacteria die.


Primary and Secondary metabolites

Primary metabolites
- Compounds produced during an organisms metabolism for survival
e.g. AA, sucrose, lactate, ethanol
- matches the growth curve

Secondary metabolites
- Compounds produced that are not essential for survival
e.g. penicillin
- starts after the growth curve
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TX22
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Is Insulin A Primary Or Secondary Metabolite?
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by TX22)
Is Insulin A Primary Or Secondary Metabolite?
Well penicillin is secondary as far as insulin goes I honestly dont know because the only way its made is by genetic engineering which involves reverse-transcription :/ but maybe I am wrong there could well be other ways of making it.
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Sakujo
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I'm really hoping to knock out 2 modules today, pray for me.
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TX22
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for the genetic engineering of insulin, when you obtain the gene can it only be done by the MRNA route, or can it be done by cutting dna into fragements by restriction enzymes and then isolate the insulin gene by electrophoreiss.
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uer23
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We still have Mod 4 left. I'm dreading this exam.

Do you guys think I'd be able to finish it, and get enough revision exam practice in time for the exam ?
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I Have No Imagination
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(Original post by uer23)
We still have Mod 4 left. I'm dreading this exam.

Do you guys think I'd be able to finish it, and get enough revision exam practice in time for the exam ?
Yes. :yep:
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by Sakujo)
I'm really hoping to knock out 2 modules today, pray for me.
Sure bro.!
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by TX22)
for the genetic engineering of insulin, when you obtain the gene can it only be done by the MRNA route, or can it be done by cutting dna into fragements by restriction enzymes and then isolate the insulin gene by electrophoreiss.
I dont think the version of restrictive enzymes would suite it the best maybe because you would also be needing promoters? again isn't electrophoresis done for genome sequencing alone?
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by uer23)
We still have Mod 4 left. I'm dreading this exam.

Do you guys think I'd be able to finish it, and get enough revision exam practice in time for the exam ?
Sure,why not!? :yep:
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Sakujo
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(Original post by ibysaiyan)
Sure bro.!
I did nothing. :sigh:
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ViolinGirl
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(Original post by TX22)
for the genetic engineering of insulin, when you obtain the gene can it only be done by the MRNA route, or can it be done by cutting dna into fragements by restriction enzymes and then isolate the insulin gene by electrophoreiss.
No, it can't be done using restriction enzymes. This is because the gene that codes for insulin is only around 200 nucleotides long, which is very small in comparison to the genome, so will be extremely difficult to locate its position.
The mRNA is can be located by using centrifugation methods to seperate it out from pancreatic tissue, and then reverse transcriptase is used to get a complementary DNA strand that can be used to synthesise the indulin gene.
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by Sakujo)
I did nothing. :sigh:
but why ?
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ibysaiyan
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Arghhhhhh I am just losing it ! I have got over 40 tabs open with not even a slightest idea on what to do! <_<

.....
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xXxBaby-BooxXx
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Just counted it all up, I have 6 lessons worth of stuff to learn for this module and then I am done

I've had a fairly good day, caught up on some of my biology notes (I've been letting them slide recently) although I am dreading the actual start of revision (not that I generally do that much of it)

Also, I'm not sure if anyone's interested, but my school got my paper back

47 marks was worth 88 UMS

Which is weird, cause they also got my chemistry one back and the same amount of marks (47) was only worth 79 UMS. Shows how everyone must have really struggled with that biology one, since that's a 9 UMS difference....10% of the UMS marks!

Anyone, I shall quit this essay whilst I'm ahead :p: and just say good luck to all of you here that are working so hard, and I really hope it pays off for us all in June!
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by xXxBaby-BooxXx)
Just counted it all up, I have 6 lessons worth of stuff to learn for this module and then I am done

I've had a fairly good day, caught up on some of my biology notes (I've been letting them slide recently) although I am dreading the actual start of revision (not that I generally do that much of it)

Also, I'm not sure if anyone's interested, but my school got my paper back

47 marks was worth 88 UMS

Which is weird, cause they also got my chemistry one back and the same amount of marks (47) was only worth 79 UMS. Shows how everyone must have really struggled with that biology one, since that's a 9 UMS difference....10% of the UMS marks!

Anyone, I shall quit this essay whilst I'm ahead :p: and just say good luck to all of you here that are working so hard, and I really hope it pays off for us all in June!
And same to you too =)
yes Hell We shall pulverize OCR. anyways I will be sticking around right till the "end".
Just wanted to share with you all this amazingly beautiful cgi clip... makes me wonder as to how characters such as Einstein, Hitler come to existence.
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Remarqable M
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wow everyone is catching up! well done! i've been looking over module 4 but hopefully i can get this module done by this week and then i'll be focusing on my physics and maths.
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Sakujo
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Lac operon is DNA right?
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by Sakujo)
Lac operon is DNA right?
Yes it is in DNA. Its the region consisting of the coding for the structural genes other regions along it are: Promoter,operator and regulator.


Btw. we did muscle work today :woo: lot to remember gonna post stuff about it later.
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Sakujo
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(Original post by ibysaiyan)
Yes it is in DNA. Its the region consisting of the coding for the structural genes other regions along it are: Promoter,operator and regulator.


Btw. we did muscle work today :woo: lot to remember gonna post stuff about it later.
Muscle work=half of module 4:yep:
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