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OCR 2010 A2 Biology Unit 2 - Control, Genome and Environment watch

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    (Original post by Sakujo)
    Guys we don't have to know about genetic diseases do we? Only the concepts behind them.
    I think we do need to know some of them. Some I remember are sickel cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, huntingtons, and there was also mention in the book on mutations that can occur on protooncogenes which can permanetatly change them into oncogenes and as a result there is uncontrolled cell division which leads to a tumour.

    The basics:

    Sickel cell anemia is caused by a point mutation that affects the B-polypeptide chains coding for hemoglobin; abnormal hameoglobin to becomes sickels upon cycles of oxygenation and deoxygenation.

    Cystic fibrosis is causes by a deletion of triplet code, it affects the transmembrane chloride channels, that affect the movement of chloride and water across certain membranes, including reproductive tracts, so people tend to become infertile.

    Huntingtons-caused by a stutter- a repeat of a nucleotide base sequence. It affects motor control mainly.
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    I think we do need to know some of them. Some I remember are sickel cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, huntingtons, and there was also mention in the book on mutations that can occur on protooncogenes which can permanetatly change them into oncogenes and as a result there is uncontrolled cell division which leads to a tumour.

    The basics:

    Sickel cell anemia is caused by a point mutation that affects the B-polypeptide chains coding for hemoglobin; abnormal hameoglobin to becomes sickels upon cycles of oxygenation and deoxygenation.

    Cystic fibrosis is causes by a deletion of triplet code, it affects the transmembrane chloride channels, that affect the movement of chloride and water across certain membranes, including reproductive tracts, so people tend to become infertile.

    Huntingtons-caused by a stutter- a repeat of a nucleotide base sequence. It affects motor control mainly.
    do we need to remember Haemophilia?
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    (Original post by aiden1234)
    could anyone also help me with how you identify and sequence genes? there are two arent there? and one uses PCR? i think one is the chain-termination method.

    could anyone also help me with epistasis? like the different types?? what goes on? ALL I REMEMBER IS ABOUT RABBITS????

    and if ANYONE can help me with how you isolate enzymes then PLEASE DO!! the books seem to contradict themselves??

    sorry i know this is alot to ask but i am reeaaaally worried now!!!!
    lol if you go back few pages we've talked about epistasis and violingirl did a really good job in explaining what epistasis is all about.
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    It sure is a lot to ask at once but anyway I am not losing anything but gaining and so are the rest of us.
    Ok:
    Electrophoresis: Basically fragments of DNA are run through a tube which has potential difference running through it consisting of agarose gel.

    First of all we break,suspense and precipitate dna.Next Primers along with enzymes and dna bases are added to the solution to make up more genetic material i.e to have more copies of dna so that the original one can be kept safely at one side.Primers are needed because these act as start-points for DNA-polymerase enzyme to initiate PCR.Next "Tagged" nucleotides are added.These nucleotide have certain properties:
    These are marked in different colored say orange for Guanine and Blue for Thymine (just a example).
    Also these nucleotide are doubly De-oxidized.Such that no further base pair rule applies after these "tagged bases" have formed. =}
    After all this lengthy process we get all fragments of DNA starting from One base to who knows what.
    These DNA fragments are added to the tube.As we all know dna is acidic such that it carries Negative charge due its Phosphate back bone.So all fragments head towards positive side.So a longer fragment would take more time i.e slower compared to its shorter counterpart.
    At the end of the tube is a laser gun which fires through oncoming bases.Computer calculates the time it took to reach their along with speed of fragment .
    This is how genome sequencing is done. =} The PCR which you talked about is one of the sub-process of genetic engineering.
    where do they get the primers(short single, strand of dna) from?
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    (Original post by aiden1234)
    ace thankyou so much for your help

    someone up there said about repping you? how do i do this? i want to thankyou for all your help!!!
    no problem my friend =}
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    where do they get the primers(short single, strand of dna) from?
    Primers are added to the suspension.
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    do we need to remember Haemophilia?
    That its an "X" recessive disease? Yes.
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    (Original post by aiden1234)
    could anyone also help me with how you identify and sequence genes? there are two arent there? and one uses PCR? i think one is the chain-termination method.

    could anyone also help me with epistasis? like the different types?? what goes on? ALL I REMEMBER IS ABOUT RABBITS????

    and if ANYONE can help me with how you isolate enzymes then PLEASE DO!! the books seem to contradict themselves??

    sorry i know this is alot to ask but i am reeaaaally worried now!!!!
    Isolate enzymes? like which one.. or do you mean restrictive enzymes leaving "sticky ends"?
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Isolate enzymes? like which one.. or do you mean restrictive enzymes leaving "sticky ends"?
    he is talking about enzyme immoblisation:p:
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    he is talking about enzyme immoblisation:p:
    Oh ok! :p:
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    he is talking about enzyme immoblisation:p:
    thats so weird how did you know i was a boy??

    and yeah i was talking about enzyme immobilizaton in the two books i use it talks about adsorption and covalent bonding etc in one and somehting completely different in another
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    do we need to remember Haemophilia?
    Ah yes yes. That too. The two main sex linked diseases we need to know are haemophilia and duchene muscular dystrophy. Let me know if you want to know about them. Too lazy to type now. :p:
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    (Original post by aiden1234)
    thats so weird how did you know i was a boy??

    and yeah i was talking about enzyme immobilizaton in the two books i use it talks about adsorption and covalent bonding etc in one and somehting completely different in another
    Oh them yea actually there are various ways of embedding enzymes one involves them being in a semi-permeable membrane which I think is made up of some gel.
    For more: http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Bio...OB/goel2nd.htm
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    Ah yes yes. That too. The two main sex linked diseases we need to know are haemophilia and duchene muscular dystrophy. Let me know if you want to know about them. Too lazy to type now. :p:
    Ah could you explain a bit on duchene muscular dystrophy ( God! took ages to type that) please =}? As this is the first time I heard it.
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    I dont remember much but anyways lets see:
    CFTR: (Cystic fibrosis conductance trans membrane regulator).
    Is a genetic disease which if i remember correctly is caused by a faulty recessive allele version on chromosome 9?
    The implications of it are: Low immune system along with short breath and excessive mucus secretion ( to an extent that a person might drown).
    How it all works? Here is how:
    On a normal human being the cells in the lung region have special protein channels which actively throw out K+ ions out as a result of which we get a water potential gradient.The ore K's out the more water potential increases, this causes excess water to be secreted out of the cell and mix-up with the mucus.S you can figure out now wheat happens to a faulty version? No channel proteins made
    Woah I'm just going to be really nitpicky (AGAIN - I'm surprised I don't drive you guys insane :p:) but it's the chloride ion channel affected, not the potassium.

    That's all
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    (Original post by xXxBaby-BooxXx)
    Woah I'm just going to be really nitpicky (AGAIN - I'm surprised I don't drive you guys insane :p:) but it's the chloride ion channel affected, not the potassium.

    That's all
    Oh yea! :/ sorry its just that I didnt have any rest or anything :/ straight from college=>gym=> computer.
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Ah could you explain a bit on duchene muscular dystrophy ( God! took ages to type that) please =}? As this is the first time I heard it.
    As far as I'm aware we don't need to know about that. In my text book it's just used as an example for the genetic diagrams, as it's sex linked. Apart from that there's nothing else I could imagine us needing to know, and the fact that it's sex linked would be mentioned in any question set if we needed to know it.
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    (Original post by xXxBaby-BooxXx)
    As far as I'm aware we don't need to know about that. In my text book it's just used as an example for the genetic diagrams, as it's sex linked. Apart from that there's nothing else I could imagine us needing to know, and the fact that it's sex linked would be mentioned in any question set if we needed to know it.
    Is that the one by mary jones?
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Is that the one by mary jones?
    Nope. It's the OCR Heinemann one mainly written by Sue Hocking,

    This one:

    http://www.bookdepository.co.uk/book...y-Student-Book
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    (Original post by xXxBaby-BooxXx)
    Nope. It's the OCR Heinemann one mainly written by Sue Hocking,

    This one:

    http://www.bookdepository.co.uk/book...y-Student-Book
    Ok.
 
 
 
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