Psychology PY4 (WJEC) Watch

cjward1
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#81
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(Original post by mel0n)
Aaaah, we're doing abnormality atm. It's really confusing, content wise & how we should structure essays and stuff.
It's 10 marks for AO1 and 15 for AO2, iirc.
Meaning for, let's say, the treatments of Schizophrenia. We have to describe the treatment but then also analyse its strengths and weaknesses.
I never know whether to analyse the actual treatment overall or whether to criticise the study example that we've given. Or whether to criticise the methodology used by the psychological study I have used as an example. Hmm
It is quite confusing! What gets me is how apparently some of the A01 is mixed in with the actual evaluation themes...
I'd go for evaluating all of it! Although one thing is getting it all in in about 37mins...
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mel0n
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(Original post by cjward1)
It is quite confusing! What gets me is how apparently some of the A01 is mixed in with the actual evaluation themes...
I'd go for evaluating all of it! Although one thing is getting it all in in about 37mins...
Oh :/ how do you mean? We've been doing the two things seperately. AO1 then AO2. Do describe all then evaluate all, as opposed to describe, evaluate, describe, evaluate, describe, evaluate...
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cjward1
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(Original post by mel0n)
Oh :/ how do you mean? We've been doing the two things seperately. AO1 then AO2. Do describe all then evaluate all, as opposed to describe, evaluate, describe, evaluate, describe, evaluate...
well as in starting off with description, which apparently would get about 7 A01 marks then within the evaluation themes would come some A01 eg in further evidence and that... although i'd prefer to have them much seperate like you have because i get worried i'l miss out important bits i think wont be useful
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mel0n
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(Original post by cjward1)
well as in starting off with description, which apparently would get about 7 A01 marks then within the evaluation themes would come some A01 eg in further evidence and that... although i'd prefer to have them much seperate like you have because i get worried i'l miss out important bits i think wont be useful
Oh! So in the evaluation (ao2) we should talk about other research that supports/disproves the, for eg, theory for causes of depression (just giving an example).
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jabed786
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(Original post by mel0n)
Aaaah, we're doing abnormality atm. It's really confusing, content wise & how we should structure essays and stuff.
It's 10 marks for AO1 and 15 for AO2, iirc.
Meaning for, let's say, the treatments of Schizophrenia. We have to describe the treatment but then also analyse its strengths and weaknesses.
I never know whether to analyse the actual treatment overall or whether to criticise the study example that we've given. Or whether to criticise the methodology used by the psychological study I have used as an example. Hmm

I find myself in essays AO2'ing both the actual point and the study. but mainly AO2'ing the point i.e. developing it and backing it up with studies.

I'll make a generic essay plan... Spend 5 minutes making an essay plan in the exam or else you may forget key things if you dive straight in. Then spend about 32 to 35 minutes writing.

A01 - explain the theory
A02 - evaluate the theory a little and support with studies

A01 - again explain another theory
A02 - evaluate this theory with some examples (research)

A01 - explain another theory if possible (this section should be quite short
And evaluate this theory. (this should be quite short)
this is due to the time frame given

A02 - make some 'clever' points and try backing up with examples (research). Such and such a thing is useful in society because blah blah blah. But we must wonder if the XXX is really tackling the issue.

rarely I evaluate the method of the 'backing up study' - if it is quite significant then I will subtly evaluate it , i.e. 'adoption studies are a good way of seeing wither biological factors affect criminality. XXX (1934) did blah blah. This shows that genetics may considerably affect future delinquency.
XXX (1955) did a similar study and did not find a high concordance rate therefore genetics may only be involved to an extent.

Sometimes I might evaluate more specifically i.e. XXX said that YYY had poor matching over groups, therefore this theory may be flawed.
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jabed786
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Someone said to A01 all in one go then A02 all in the next i.e. describe all the theories, then critisize and develop them. But one of my other teachers says this may be a bad move because you need to show the examiner asap that you dont just list points and do A01, but also can A02. If you did all the A01 in one go the examiner may fall into a mindset where they dont recognize the A02 as easily.
Examiners look at the bands before they actually look at the marks. So if they can spot the evaluation quite early on then they will think oh this person is in the high bands e.g.6-8 in A01 and 12-14 in A02
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mel0n
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I will type up a model essay we have been given, in a while, to show you how ours are set out, in regards to A01 and A02.
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jabed786
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if anyone is interested, as of Monday I will have finished
Formation of relationships, dissolution of relationships, understudied relationships
offender profiling, decision making in juries, theories of crime
gender bias, nature/nurture

(8 out of the 21 essays)


so if anyone has any Q's I can try giving my 2 pence on the matter.
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mel0n
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I'll write out the causes of depression essay, to examplify how we go about getting AO2 and AO1 in together...


AO1One Physiological explanation of depression is the Abnormal Brain Structures, which argues that depression is caused by abnormal brain functioning. Kumar used MRI scans and compared 53 late onset depression patiens with 35 controls. The findings revealed that all depressed patients had reduced pre-frontal lobe volumes. Kumar's study provides valuable insights into abnormal brain structures causing depression, as does Sheline's study, where 20 depressed patients were compared with a control group who were not depressed. Sheline's findings revealed that all 20 depressed patients had a reduction in the core nucleus of the Amygdala on both sides of the brain. They also had an abnormal blood flow in the amygdala.

AO2 I think(strengths): A strength of the abnormal brain structures explanation is that it is supported by research that provides valuable insights into the causes of depression. In both studies, the findings were absolute and therefore firmer conclusions can be made and this also makes the theory stronger. To add to this, the methods used by Kumar and Sheline have good scientific validity, as MRI scans are a well established, scientific, objective and quantifiable method of gathering information, which therefore helps to strengthen any conclusions made about depression and its causes.

AO2 again, but weaknesses: However, both studies used small samples, such as Kumar's study where all patients were 60years old+ and therefore this raises problems with generalisation as the findings that support the abnormal brain structures theory may not be representative of the depressed population. Aldridge found that all depressed patients were either on medication or had previously taken anti-depressants, therefore cause and effect may not be possible, as the medication may have caused the structural abnormality rather than structural abnormality causing depression. In addition, the abnormal brain structure theory could be criticised for being biological reductionism as it ignored psychological and environmental factors and therefore could be considered to simplistic an explanation of the complex processed involved in depression. It also ignores the role of free will and individual control and choice in behaviours linked to depression therefore could be considered deterministic too, and so can't fully account for the cause of depression.
It should also be noted that various other studies have been conducted, such as Shaha's where the findings were not absolute, therefore the findings of Sheline and Kumar could be purely due to chance.

AO1: Another Physiological explanation of depression is the Neurochemical theory, which argues that depression is the result of faulty functioning of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and/or serotonin. Depression is said to be caused by low levels/an imbalance or serotonin or sensetivity of receptor sites.

AO1 again I thinkAnti depressants have been found to increase noradrenaline and/or serotonin levels, and also relieve the symptoms of depression. SRRI's such as Prozac block the reuptake of serotonin and have been found to be an effective drug treatment of depression, which therefore implies that serotonin has a role in depression. The AO2 here kind of ties in with the AO1, I'm not sure if I'm doing it right, and also, I'm talking about the methods which I'm not sure I should be doing: Scientific methods like PET scans have been used to support the Neurochemical theory, and help to provide quantitative data analysis which is clearly an advantage and provides valuable support for the theory. On the other hand, the findings are not absolute, because although Prozac does relieve the symptoms of depression, not everyone with low levels of serotoning and/or noradrenaline is depressed and not everyone that is depressed has low levels of these neurotransmitters, therefore cause and effect can not be concluded.

AO1One Psychological explanation of depression is the Psychodynamic explanation which believes that depression is the result of anger turned inwards, and the event that triggers this is loss. Based on Freud's ideas, the explanation argues that anger is turned inwards because an outward expression is not accepted by the superego, and this process operates at an unconscious level. Childhood experiences such as losses like death can make a person vulnerable and likely to end up depressed during adulthood.

AO2 strengths and weaknessesThe psychodynamic explanation of depression clearly provides a qualititative indepth analysis of the causes of depression as it uses methods such as longitudinal case studies. It is very informative as it can provide valuable information and therefore is not only an interesting alternative, but is also a very descriptive theory. not sure if this Roy study should have gone in the AO1 bit... Roy found that children who have lost a parent during childhood are more vulnerable to depression as an adult, which supports the Psychodynamic theory. However, Lewishon found no such relationship through a correlation. Also, the theory is non-falsifiable, which is an important criterion for it to be viewed as credible. This therefore lowers its credibility and noone could disprove such a vague and poorly specified theoretical problem. The evidence supporting the theory is based on retrospective reports and since research has demonstrated the imperfection of memory, this casts doubt on the validity of the explanation.

AO1Another Psychological explanation of depression is the Cognitive theory, which believed that depression is a disorder of thinking and it is not events, but the negative ways of thinking about these events that cause depression. Beck uses the negative cognitive triad to explain depression, which is the maladaptive way people think about themselves, the world and their future. He argues that depressive schemas trigger the cognitive triad, which involves thoughts that reflect low self-esteem, uselessness and exaggerated misfortune.

AO2 first strengths of the explanation and beck's ideas then weaknesses Beck's ideas can explain why some people get depressed and others do not. Since people interpret and think about their futures differenty, the model can account for individual differences in the vulnerability to depression, and as well as this has good face validity as it, quite simply, makes sense. However, it is arguably an abstract concept that is not open to scientific analysis. As well as this it has also been criticised for putting too much emphasis on internet mental processes, neglecting factors such as the environment and is therefore quite possibly reductionist. In addition, Gotlib revealed that depressed people thing in a pessimistic and hopeless way, but when no longer depressed, their interpetations, expectations and beliefs reflect other non-depressed people. Therefore it may be that depression causes the negative thinking rather than the other way round and cause and effect is not strong.

Overall, although each explanation provides a valuable contribution towards the causes of depression, it is clear that more than one explanation may play a part at one time. It would be more beneficial to consider a multi-dimensional approach that takes into account more than one explanation, which would provide a more detailed understanding of the causes of depression.





That essay would probably only work if the question said 'Give at least one physiological explanation and at least one psychological explanation...' - If it asks for only one of each explanation then I'm a bit buggered because I won't have enough to write!
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xstarxsparklex
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The way my teacher tells my class to do it is to do A01 first and then evaluate the A01 based on 8 themes, which are: Further evidence; Methodology; Usefulness; Power, politics & the media; Free will vs. determinism; Nature vs. nurture; Reductionism; Bias. Within each of these points is support and criticism of the A01, along with a very brief criticism of this evidence, i.e criticising a criticism (if that makes sense :P ) Because this is obviously wayyyyyyyyyy too much to write in the time we have, we're told to try and pick 4 or 5 of these themes. It's a lot to learn, but I find breaking it down into key evaluation themes really helps me structure the answers in my head.
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mel0n
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(Original post by xstarxsparklex)
The way my teacher tells my class to do it is to do A01 first and then evaluate the A01 based on 8 themes, which are: Further evidence; Methodology; Usefulness; Power, politics & the media; Free will vs. determinism; Nature vs. nurture; Reductionism; Bias. Within each of these points is support and criticism of the A01, along with a very brief criticism of this evidence, i.e criticising a criticism (if that makes sense :P ) Because this is obviously wayyyyyyyyyy too much to write in the time we have, we're told to try and pick 4 or 5 of these themes. It's a lot to learn, but I find breaking it down into key evaluation themes really helps me structure the answers in my head.
Power, politics and the media? I don't understand?
Also, how would you criticise the methodology? Would you criticise the methodology of the specific study that you use as an example, or of the overall theory?
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jabed786
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(Original post by mel0n)
I'll write out the causes of depression essay, to examplify how we go about getting AO2 and AO1 in together...

That essay would probably only work if the question said 'Give at least one physiological explanation and at least one psychological explanation...' - If it asks for only one of each explanation then I'm a bit buggered because I won't have enough to write!
You are very lucky to get model answers - wish we got them so I can copy some of the things and add my own bits. *sigh*
the model answer you were given looks like a high B grade at glance, even though I don't study Abnormality, I look at the bands first just as the examiners do. The essay looks good - its got coherence, evaluation, studies to back up points and knowledge.
The essay itself seems quite long for 30 minutes? My advice is try to search some of the key words out of the essay title onto google to find an wjec examiner report for that question which might include some hints on what they look for i.e. do they mind if you do two psych explanations and two physical ones. Or are they looking for one of each and some other sort of explanation if there is one.
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mel0n
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(Original post by jabed786)
You are very lucky to get model answers - wish we got them so I can copy some of the things and add my own bits. *sigh*
the model answer you were given looks like a high B grade at glance, even though I don't study Abnormality, I look at the bands first just as the examiners do. The essay looks good - its got coherence, evaluation, studies to back up points and knowledge.
The essay itself seems quite long for 30 minutes? My advice is try to search some of the key words out of the essay title onto google to find an wjec examiner report for that question which might include some hints on what they look for i.e. do they mind if you do two psych explanations and two physical ones. Or are they looking for one of each and some other sort of explanation if there is one.
Aahh thanks. What kind of things do you think it'd need to include for it to be an A grade? I managed to write all that in 37 minutes Which is what we are given in the exam.
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jabed786
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(Original post by mel0n)
Aahh thanks. What kind of things do you think it'd need to include for it to be an A grade? I managed to write all that in 37 minutes Which is what we are given in the exam.
I stand corrected :p: maybe I would be able to write all that in 37 mins, but our teacher says we should spend 5 minutes on an essay plan in the actual exam and then spend 30 to 35 minutes on writing out the essay. Because as she calls it, lots of students 'verbal vomit' (just write out loads of things which consists of waffles and mainly A01)
she's a wjec marker.
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mel0n
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(Original post by jabed786)
I stand corrected :p: maybe I would be able to write all that in 37 mins, but our teacher says we should spend 5 minutes on an essay plan in the actual exam and then spend 30 to 35 minutes on writing out the essay. Because as she calls it, lots of students 'verbal vomit' (just write out loads of things which consists of waffles and mainly A01)
she's a wjec marker.
Aaaah, it would help if my teacher was a WJEC marker. He's an AQA marker instead. One of the senior examiners. Eughh, it's so hard to get the stuff right for WJEC! They're so picky. Like, with that essay I wrote out, I dunno whether that's even what they're looking for!
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jabed786
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(Original post by mel0n)
Aaaah, it would help if my teacher was a WJEC marker. He's an AQA marker instead. One of the senior examiners. Eughh, it's so hard to get the stuff right for WJEC! They're so picky. Like, with that essay I wrote out, I dunno whether that's even what they're looking for!
ours is a normal marker I think (she marks PY1 and PY4, and I think she is aiming in the future to become a senior marker - she deserves it for being a nice person ) The board is really mean in terms of changing the mark schemes whenever they feel like it thus having a domino effect on all us students. She said that on the old spec most of the country learnt two things for a certain essay thinking they would get an A, but then wjec decided that they wanted 3 things so the people got B's instead!

But the marking is consistent.
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mel0n
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I don't think I'll be able to get A grades in any of my essays or exams this year for Psychology I just don't know how to go about the essays and stuffs. :dontknow:
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jabed786
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(Original post by mel0n)
I don't think I'll be able to get A grades in any of my essays or exams this year for Psychology I just don't know how to go about the essays and stuffs. :dontknow:
I see you have changed your nationality again melon
I've got A's in most of my essays for this unit but I keep saying to myself that the examiner is some how going to think 'nah this kid is a B'
The amount of effort I've put in these essays is just too much - I wish they would just give us A's for the hardwork we put into trying to think about what the exmainer wants.
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mel0n
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(Original post by jabed786)
I see you have changed your nationality again melon
I've got A's in most of my essays for this unit but I keep saying to myself that the examiner is some how going to think 'nah this kid is a B'
The amount of effort I've put in these essays is just too much - I wish they would just give us A's for the hardwork we put into trying to think about what the exmainer wants.

Exactly, I just don't know WHAT the examiner wants therefore I don't know what to put into an essay, so I don't bother. LOL. If I knew what to do, I would. But I'm honestly clueless about how I can get an A grade essay! Not sure how to balance out the AO1 and AO2, not sure what kind of evaluation to do. Not sure where to bring studies in and what to describe etc etc. Eugh. And yes! Nationality has changed again. :ninja:
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xstarxsparklex
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(Original post by mel0n)
Power, politics and the media? I don't understand?
Also, how would you criticise the methodology? Would you criticise the methodology of the specific study that you use as an example, or of the overall theory?
Well, power, politics and media is sort of..to do with the real world. For example, in talking about treatments for depression, there's the political debate about who gains from these treatments- ie. whether drugs are really of benefit to the patient or whether it's Psychiatrists who are benefitted, in terms of gaining control over vulnerable people. Some people refer to drugs such as Prozac as "chemical labotomies", etc. In linking drug treatments to the media, you can use recent news stories, such as the man in America who killed his wife, children and grandchild after taking SSRIs. His family sued the drugs company and won, suggesting that drug treatments aren't necessarily the best way forward in treating depression, and that with taking drugs come side effects also. Basically this section refers to support or criticisms of both talking and drug treatments based on current events, etc.
And about the methodology, I think the way my teacher does it is by evaluating the theory. Using treatments for depression as an example again, I'd talk about how supporters of drug treatments claim drugs are the way forward, as the research on which treatments are based is highly scientific, reliable, etc. And then include examples, such as control groups- placebo studies, etc. But then suggest that maybe psychology shouldn't necessarily be studied scientifically anyway. Then, talk about the validity of treatments and that sort of thing.
Sorry if I haven't explained it all very well; I do tend to ramble on a bit :p:
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