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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    I knew them already hmm.. anyways how's your revision going? have you done any past papers ?tonight I will try to finish most of the modules leaving animal/plant behavior and co-ordination :P

    One thing which upsets me is that in the book it says most of the enzymes/penicillin is made by fed batch culture BUT practically Penicillin is made by continuous.So which should one go for lol..
    I havent done any past papers yet, I want to make sure I have thoroughly gone through each module many times before tatempting them. Yeah, I have animal/ plant behaviour left and coordination too. I have covered them before in a detail, but I want to refresh my memory on them.

    Penicillin is a secondary metabolite produced after the bacteria' main growth (during lag and log phase.) It is produced to kill other organisms competeting for nutrients, when nutrients are scarce. In a continous culture, nutrients for gowth are added to the culture, and waste are removed from the culture. This means that there isn't anything acting as a limiting factor, which means there isn't a stationary or death phase. Secondary metabolites wouldn't really be secreted because most of the energy obtained from the nutrients will be used for growth instead. This means the Penicillin is produced via batch culture in an ideal case.
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    (Original post by Summerdays)
    I havent done any past papers yet, I want to make sure I have thoroughly gone through each module many times before tatempting them. Yeah, I have animal/ plant behaviour left and coordination too. I have covered them before in a detail, but I want to refresh my memory on them.

    Penicillin is a secondary metabolite produced after the bacteria' main growth (during lag and log phase.) It is produced to kill other organisms competeting for nutrients, when nutrients are scarce. In a continous culture, nutrients for gowth are added to the culture, and waste are removed from the culture. This means that there isn't anything acting as a limiting factor, which means there isn't a stationary or death phase. Secondary metabolites wouldn't really be secreted because most of the energy obtained from the nutrients will be used for growth instead. This means the Penicillin is produced via batch culture in an ideal case.
    That's the key point since secondary metabolites are secreted by few cells,at specific stage by the culture.
    :yep:
    Yea Enough time wasted I will go through ecosystem/biotech right now
    Too much tsr-trolling
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    Alright Biotechnology done :P
    By the way do we need to know all the ways of enzyme immobilization or just by gel entrapment ? All the spec says isescribe how to immobilize enzymes :P
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Alright Biotechnology done :P
    Okay then, throw some questions that you just learned
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    (Original post by Summerdays)
    Okay then, throw some questions that you just learned
    What is the difference between primary and secondary metabolite.
    How are enzymes immobilized and what are their benefits.
    Ask me some too :P
    I am doing gene tech now my fav. module :P
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    Primary metabolite are chemicals needed for gowth, such as protein carbohydrates etc. They are produced during the lag phase and log phase.
    The secondary metabolites are chemicals secreted by an organism to fight-off competition. Thi is done after the main growth phase has finished.

    Enzyme can be immobilised by adsorbing onto an insoluble material, or being covalently bonded to an insoluble material. They can also be trapped in alginated beads. Their benefits i that they are more table. They don't mix with the product. They are reusuable and can be produced cheaply.

    Explain to me the process in making bacteria produce inulin?
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    (Original post by Summerdays)
    Primary metabolite are chemicals needed for gowth, such as protein carbohydrates etc. They are produced during the lag phase and log phase.
    The secondary metabolites are chemicals secreted by an organism to fight-off competition. Thi is done after the main growth phase has finished.

    Enzyme can be immobilised by adsorbing onto an insoluble material, or being covalently bonded to an insoluble material. They can also be trapped in alginated beads. Their benefits i that they are more table. They don't mix with the product. They are reusuable and can be produced cheaply.

    Explain to me the process in making bacteria produce inulin?
    Yea.OH I just started genome sequencing although I do remember a bit about insulin bit it's very shallow for now. :P I will post in bit.
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    (Original post by Summerdays)
    Primary metabolite are chemicals needed for gowth, such as protein carbohydrates etc. They are produced during the lag phase and log phase.
    The secondary metabolites are chemicals secreted by an organism to fight-off competition. Thi is done after the main growth phase has finished.

    Enzyme can be immobilised by adsorbing onto an insoluble material, or being covalently bonded to an insoluble material. They can also be trapped in alginated beads. Their benefits i that they are more table. They don't mix with the product. They are reusuable and can be produced cheaply.

    Explain to me the process in making bacteria produce inulin?
    Just finished genome stuff =]
    Here goes:
    Insulin which is made by the B-cells in the islet of langerhans has it's Mrna determined.This Mrna is added into a solution consisting of enzyme reverse transciptase.This enzyme converts mrna into single stranded DNA.The single strand of DNA is then transformed into a double strand by having free nucleotides,dna polymerase and primers added.To incorporate this length of dna into a vector (plasmid) restriction enzyme is used on both the Double stranded dna and the plasmid.
    Restriction enzyme leaves complementary sticky ends,which join together with ease.
    Ligase enzyme is added which seals phosphate back bone,hydrogen bond between the sticky ends merge together.A transgenic Plasmid is produced.This plasmid is then inserted into bacteria ,the bacteria is identified by replica plating.These are then fermented,harvested.
    =]
    Very similar to the transfer of Human growth hormone with slight difference at the beginning.
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Just finished genome stuff =]
    Here goes:
    Insulin which is made by the B-cells in the islet of langerhans has it's Mrna determined.This Mrna is added into a solution consisting of enzyme reverse transciptase.This enzyme converts mrna into single stranded DNA.The single strand of DNA is then transformed into a double strand by having free nucleotides,dna polymerase and primers added.To incorporate this length of dna into a vector (plasmid) restriction enzyme is used on both the Double stranded dna and the plasmid.
    Restriction enzyme leaves complementary sticky ends,which join together with ease.
    Ligase enzyme is added which seals phosphate back bone,hydrogen bond between the sticky ends merge together.A transgenic Plasmid is produced.This plasmid is then inserted into bacteria ,the bacteria is identified by replica plating.These are then fermented,harvested.
    =]
    Very similar to the transfer of Human growth hormone with slight difference at the beginning.
    Very good; I would give you full marks for that answer :}
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    (Original post by Summerdays)
    Very good; I would give you full marks for that answer :}
    Thanks! =] I just woke up after like 3 hours of sleep :s
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    Can someone go over these points, I think I get them but for some reason have a weird feeling theres more to them :s
    (j) explain the basis of continuous and discontinuous variation by reference to the number of genes which influence the variation;
    (h) explain the importance of manipulating the growing conditions in a fermentation vessel in order to maximise the yield of product required; For this one I need help on how the type and addition of a nutrient helps to maximise yield, all I have is, Type - depends on if its secondary or primary metabolite being produced and that the microogranisms need a supply of energy to survive (a thought has come, if its a secondary metabolite being produced then the nutrient levels will start to decrease, more competition thus leading to production of things like antibiotics, is that right?)

    Any help would be great!! thanks!!
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    (Original post by mathsclown)
    Can someone go over these points, I think I get them but for some reason have a weird feeling theres more to them :s
    (j) explain the basis of continuous and discontinuous variation by reference to the number of genes which influence the variation;
    (h) explain the importance of manipulating the growing conditions in a fermentation vessel in order to maximise the yield of product required; For this one I need help on how the type and addition of a nutrient helps to maximise yield, all I have is, Type - depends on if its secondary or primary metabolite being produced and that the microogranisms need a supply of energy to survive (a thought has come, if its a secondary metabolite being produced then the nutrient levels will start to decrease, more competition thus leading to production of things like antibiotics, is that right?)

    Any help would be great!! thanks!!
    Last night I did zero bio work GRR.. ok Let's see what i can recall :P
    Continous variation is where you don't have charcateriscs defined into catgeories instead a range of values exist between the two extremes.
    Contnous variation is brought by genes as following:
    *

    If a gene for a partciluar charactertsic has different versions/ (allele).

    *If a particular characteristic has it's expression influenced by more than a gene.
    *Polygenic inheritance is where a trait is expresseb by the combined interaction of more than three genes.
    I don't know about the color bit but here is what I know:
    In order for us to max. productivty out of micro-organisms we need to know the nature of the desired substance/metabolite.
    Whether it's primary or second.If it's primary then a continuous culture is needed because the product is being continuously made under the fundamental process of the m.organism
    For secondary metabolite batch culture is used such as (Beta-Galactisidase) or Penicilin.
    Once the culture has reached it's max capacity,the culture is harvested/set-up sterilized and re used.

    Oh a point I forgot to mention: In continuous culture one another reason as to why we get good yield is because PH,Temperature are controlled and waste gases/removed.
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Last night I did zero bio work GRR.. ok Let's see what i can recall :P
    Continous variation is where you don't have charcateriscs defined into catgeories instead a range of values exist between the two extremes.
    Contnous variation is brought by genes as following:
    *

    If a gene for a partciluar charactertsic has different versions/ (allele).

    *If a particular characteristic has it's expression influenced by more than a gene.
    *Polygenic inheritance is where a trait is expresseb by the combined interaction of more than three genes.
    I don't know about the color bit but here is what I know:
    In order for us to max. productivty out of micro-organisms we need to know the nature of the desired substance/metabolite.
    Whether it's primary or second.If it's primary then a continuous culture is needed because the product is being continuously made under the fundamental process of the m.organism
    For secondary metabolite batch culture is used such as (Beta-Galactisidase) or Penicilin.
    Once the culture has reached it's max capacity,the culture is harvested/set-up sterilized and re used.

    Oh a point I forgot to mention: In continuous culture one another reason as to why we get good yield is because PH,Temperature are controlled and waste gases/removed.
    outline the process of sequencing a genome of an organism?
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    (Original post by clad in armour)
    outline the process of sequencing a genome of an organism?
    I haven;t slept all night damn maths!! grr. Alright just an outline? ok

    I will take an example of a plant leaf.
    A plant leaf is crushed causing the DNA to re suspend and precipitate in a buffer solution.
    The DNA then has multiple copies of it made by PCR (polymerase chain reaction).
    These DNA copies are then made to go through tiny opening/tube where under high pressure are broken down into "dna fragments" of various length.
    The dna fragments along with primers,free nucleotides,dna polymerase and tagged nucleotides are added.The addition of tagged nucleotide stops further building of nucleotide chain.So all dna fragments end up with a primer base in the end.
    Fragments are placed in a capillary tube which has potential difference running across (Electrophoresis).Dna fragments are attracted towards the positive electrode (anode).
    Shorter fragments travel quicker.
    At the end of the tube a laser beam is shone.This illuminates over the tagged nucleotides.Computer calculates and sorts each fragment according to how much distance they have covered in a given time .
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    I haven;t slept all night damn maths!! grr. Alright just an outline? ok

    I will take an example of a plant leaf.
    A plant leaf is crushed causing the DNA to re suspend and precipitate in a buffer solution.
    The DNA then has multiple copies of it made by PCR (polymerase chain reaction).
    These DNA copies are then made to go through tiny opening/tube where under high pressure are broken down into "dna fragments" of various length.
    The dna fragments along with primers,free nucleotides,dna polymerase and tagged nucleotides are added.The addition of tagged nucleotide stops further building of nucleotide chain.So all dna fragments end up with a primer base in the end.
    Fragments are placed in a capillary tube which has potential difference running across (Electrophoresis).Dna fragments are attracted towards the positive electrode (anode).
    Shorter fragments travel quicker.
    At the end of the tube a laser beam is shone.This illuminates over the tagged nucleotides.Computer calculates and sorts each fragment according to how much distance they have covered in a given time .
    lol Mary Jones FTW, the other book uses BACs which is just annoying, but yes for an outline thats cool, I might have briefly outlined how PCR works, but otherwsie full marks

    anything for me? and what maths are you doing, S1?
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Last night I did zero bio work GRR
    Thanks a ton!
    Ye loads of random things have suddenly popped up in the last two days that have halted my revision, really annoying
    Did some past papers this morning though, I guess my strongest topics are Cellular control and Module 2, Module 4 I understand but haven't been able to test myself on it because I cant find past paper questions for it
    And Module 3 in my opinion is pretty much a repeat of F212 with a few added bits lol
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    (Original post by clad in armour)
    lol Mary Jones FTW, the other book uses BACs which is just annoying
    I found the Mary Jones one really good for the genetics sections but the environment and responses sections, I found were better in the Heinemann book.


    Only 4 days days to go now Hoping for a nice straightforward eassyyyyyy paper lol!

    BTW heres a question for you
    Outline the process involved in the Genetic Engineering of Golden Rice
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    (Original post by mathsclown)
    I found the Mary Jones one really good for the genetics sections but the environment and responses sections, I found were better in the Heinemann book.


    Only 4 days days to go now Hoping for a nice straightforward eassyyyyyy paper lol!

    BTW heres a question for you
    Outline the process involved in the Genetic Engineering of Golden Rice
    I have maths c4 tomorrow so I am hoping to finish module 3 and maybe 4 as by 25th Leaving me with 48 hours to grind on past papers.I have already done all the past questions on genetics ages ago.Three imo doesn't have much content rather it's a sort of resurrected form of F212.Module 4 is fun apart from animal behavior (lame).

    The production of golden rice by genetic engineering is as following:
    Two genes are extracted for the production of B-carotene.These genes code for the following enzymes: Phyotene synthase (from daffodil) and carotene desaturase (from bacteria).Both are then inserted into a vector (plasmid) by a very lengthy process ( i.e a restriction enzyme is added to both of the genes,leaving sticky end.Ligase enzyme closes the phosphate back bones.A transgenic plasmid is produced.Replica plating allows the identification of bacteria which have taken this modified plasmid.
    Important bit:The nature of these bacteria is to infect plant embryo.Those who get infected by these,go on to have their endosperm carry these genes.Once the plant matures it produces carotene and the resulting seed as well.

    Gotta love mary jones though the whole process of merging genes is not shown "under golden rice".I guess they didn't want to keep on bringing same points topic after topic.
    These techniques are already used in the making of HGH and insulin (with a slight modification)
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    (Original post by clad in armour)
    lol Mary Jones FTW, the other book uses BACs which is just annoying, but yes for an outline thats cool, I might have briefly outlined how PCR works, but otherwsie full marks

    anything for me? and what maths are you doing, S1?
    Hmm I have yet to finish module three (yek) and four.
    hm..
    Maths c4,I already got an A on this but would like to get the rest marks hopefully.
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Hmm I have yet to finish module three (yek) and four.
    hm..
    Maths c4,I already got an A on this but would like to get the rest marks hopefully.
    What do you mean by 'finish' lol? Do you mean doing all the questions and reading up about everything or just covering the topics?
 
 
 
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