Join TSR now and get all your revision questions answeredSign up now
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by rls123)
    is anyone able to give me a break down of everything that goes into special topic 5? I'm really confused about what I need to know. thanks


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Which one is special topic 5? Is it Scotland and the impact of the Great War?
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    Anyone got any idea what'll come up for Century of Revolutions or American Independence?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by rls123)
    is anyone able to give me a break down of everything that goes into special topic 5? I'm really confused about what I need to know. thanks


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Okay,

    1. SCOTLAND IN 1914 (political, social & economic conditions and martial traditions)

    2. SCOTS ON THE WESTERN FRONT (British Army in 1914, The BEF and TA, Pals battalions, trench warfare, The Battle of Loos, The Battle of the Somme)

    3. THE HOME FRONT (recruitment and conscription, the changing role of women, dilution, the rent strikes of 1915, DORA, commemoration and remembrance)

    4. SCOTLAND AT WORK AND AT WAR (impact on industry and economic, agriculture, rationing, post-war emigration, the land issue in the Highlands and Islands)

    5. POLITICAL CHANGE (decline of the Liberals, rise of Labour, ILP, Red Clydeside, 1922 election)

    6. SCOTLAND AFTER THE WAR (the significance of the Great War in the development of Scottish identity)

    Hope that helps.


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    Anyone got any idea what'll come up for Century of Revolutions or American Independence?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by OxFox)
    what do you think will come up for Britain and Germany?
    I've gone through the past papers from the last 3 years and it looks like the essay questions for Britain will be Women, How far democracy and Liberals why. However thatts really predictable as these are the only questions thats came up once. Anyone got any predictions For USA? I was thinking immigration Depression or New Deal?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by EllaGwenn)
    Okay,

    1. SCOTLAND IN 1914 (political, social & economic conditions and martial traditions)

    2. SCOTS ON THE WESTERN FRONT (British Army in 1914, The BEF and TA, Pals battalions, trench warfare, The Battle of Loos, The Battle of the Somme)

    3. THE HOME FRONT (recruitment and conscription, the changing role of women, dilution, the rent strikes of 1915, DORA, commemoration and remembrance)

    4. SCOTLAND AT WORK AND AT WAR (impact on industry and economic, agriculture, rationing, post-war emigration, the land issue in the Highlands and Islands)

    5. POLITICAL CHANGE (decline of the Liberals, rise of Labour, ILP, Red Clydeside, 1922 election)

    6. SCOTLAND AFTER THE WAR (the significance of the Great War in the development of Scottish identity)

    Hope that helps.


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Just to add although it isn't in the textbook you need to know about the rise of the conservative party in scotland as well cos it's been in the exam quite a bit.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Does anyone have an example essay for the obstacles to german unification? And also what paragraphs do you do in a bismarck essay?
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by ElspethNix)
    Does anyone have an example essay for the obstacles to german unification? And also what paragraphs do you do in a bismarck essay?
    Before I wrote the essay for it my teacher told me to focus my paragraphs on: Bismarck and his supreme opportunism, the Prussian military and the Zollverein. In the essay, I got a high B, so I think that's alright, but the SQA marking scheme mentions about the actions of napoleon, Austria's weakness and the attitude of the foreign states so I would probably do paragraphs on them but only just to use them as a way introducing more argument and evaluation points, since they are small factors.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by ElspethNix)
    Does anyone have an example essay for the obstacles to german unification? And also what paragraphs do you do in a bismarck essay?
    Below is a homework essay which I submitted in October and scored 13/20 (B) I hope it helps you!

    Homework – Essay

    Question: - ‘Austrian Strength’ was the greatest obstacle to German nationalism between 1815 and 1850’. How accurate is this view?
    After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 and up to 1848 there were feelings of nationalism and liberalism amongst many of the people living in the German states. They had been united in their struggle against Napoleon and now some would like that nationalism to lead to a united Germany.
    The developments of cultural nationalism and the growth of industry, which led to economic nationalism, were both present throughout the German states. People gradually became in favour of a united Germany as the growth of nationalism grew drastically in the period of time between 1815 ad 1850.
    However, there were many obstacles that prevented nationalism. Arguably, ‘Austrian strength’ was the greatest obstacle to German nationalism between 1815 and 1850. Although there is evidence to support that there weremany other factors which could also be considered for the obviation of a united Germany.
    In many aspects Austria was seen as the most powerful state in Germany. The German states had once belonged to the Holy Roman Empire which was traditionally ruled by Austria. As a result of this, the Austrian Emperor Metternich was given the presidency of the German Confederation and many smaller states were in awe of Austria. As a powerful and influential leader, Metternich was personally opposed to both Nationalism and Liberalism. He was in favour of an autocratic society in which the German states would not be united. In order to ensure that nationalism wouldn’t go ahead Metternich used repression and press censorship as well as devoting his full energies to upholding the Vienna settlements and destroying French Revolutionary ideals.
    The Troppau Congress was held in 1820 in which Austria had attended along with Prussia and Russia and had agreed to suppress liberal and nationalist uprisings. This meant it was almost impossible for the German states to become united. Real strength of Austria was demonstrated in 1850 with the humiliation at Olmutz where Austria forced Prussia to back down on their proposal of a ‘Kleindeutsch’ which was known as a new Germany without Austria. It became increasingly difficult for the other states to try and reach an agreement with Austria over a united Germany. This evidence supports the claim that ‘Austrian Strength’ was the greatest obstacle to German Nationalism between 1815 and 1850.
    It is clear that Austrian strength was certainly an important factor in preventing unification and one of the reasons Austria was so strong was through its leadership of the German Confederation and the creation of the 1815 Vienna Settlement which refrained Germany from unifying. Nationalism was highly discouraged by the terms of the Vienna Settlement and the German Confederation guaranteed the independence of each individual state and protected the power of each monarch. The German Confederation comprised 39 states in all, 35 monarchies and 4 free cities. This control ensured that nationalism would not be granted.
    Amid a growing call for reform and economic integration, conservative leaders, including Klemens and Metternich, persuaded the confederation’s princes to pass the repressive Carlsbad Decrees in 1819. This was set up to oversee universities and outlawed student societies who were in support of Nationalism.This was followed by the federal assembly in the 1830s, led by Metternich in passing additional measures to crush liberalism and nationalism.TheseAnti nationalist measures were further reinforced in 1832 when the ‘Six Acts’ were passed increasing censorship and allowing action against any opposition groups.
    As well as, the German Confederation and the terms of the Vienna Settlement, the weakness of Nationalism was another obstacle that significantly refrained Germany from unifying between 1815 and 1850. Many nationalists were divided over the ‘Kleindeutsch’ which was the consideration of an empire ruled by Prussia. There was feeling that if unification were to take place that Prussia would have to lead the way and not everyone would trust their motives. There was concern amongst nationalists that Prussia would arrange things in such a way that Prussia would benefit the most. There was also a weakness in that most Germans had little desire to see a united Germany, only the small minority of middle classes were interested in nationalism. Other countries were also happy for Germany to remain weak and divided. A strong unified Germany may upset the balance of power in Europe.
    Furthermore, the failure of the Frankfurt Parliament reduced the chances of nationalism. TheFrankfurt Parliament was established in 1848 as a response to the widespread revolutions of the same year throughout the German Confederation. The Parliament's mission was to create a German constitution that would satisfy the whole of Germany and institute a central Government. However, by June 1849 the Frankfurt Parliament had failed, its power no longer recognized. Despite some achievements the parliament was unable to fully establish either its authority or its constitution. The failure of the Frankfurt parliament was precipitated by a number of factors, from its inability to make quick, vital decisions to the division between its members. This failure further decreased the chances of German Unification.
    Particularism is also a major factor that prevented German Nationalism between 1815 and 1850. The Northern German states were mostly Protestant while the Southern states were Catholic. This created a division to nationalism as the Northern states looked to Prussia for protection whereas; the Southern states looked to Austria. German leaders also obstructed nationalism as they wanted to protect their own power and position, unity would destroy this.
    In conclusion, there is evidence of various obstacles that prevented German Nationalism during 1815 and 1850. On one hand, Austrian Strength can be seen as the greatest obstacle to German Nationalism as its influential empire led by Metternich had the power to oversee any opposition that was in favor of Nationalism. On the other hand, there are many other factors that can be seen to challenge Austrian Strength as the greatest obstacle in refraining the unification of the German states.
    Overall, I conclude that Austrian Strength was the greatest obstacle to German Nationalism to an extent. However, other factors also significantly contributed to the prevention of German Unity between 1815 and 1850.

    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by ElspethNix)
    Does anyone have an example essay for the obstacles to german unification? And also what paragraphs do you do in a bismarck essay?
    I also have a plan for this essay which might be more useful for you! Good luck for the exam

    Issue 3:- An evaluation of the obstacles to German Unification, 1815-1850.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    CONTEXT (BACKGROUND)
    After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 many German people felt that they had been united by their French enemy and that the German states could better defend themselves in future as a united nation. However, although there was a recognisable growth of nationalism in Germany between 1815 and 1850, a unified Germany was not achieved during this time. Even although the nationalists came close in 1849 with the short lived Frankfurt Parliament, it appeared that there remained too many obstacles in the way.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    INTRODUCTION
    Explain the isolated factor briefly and list the other relevant factors to be taken into account
    Example Factors:

    • Particularism (religion divisions)
    • Austrian Strength (Metternich, 1920 Troppau Congress)
    • Nationalism (weakness)
    • Confederation (German)
    • Attitudes (foreign)
    • Prussia (suspicion of)

    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    FACTOR 1: PARTICULARISM
    • Religion the main factor here – Northern German states mostly protestant while the Southern states were Catholic.
    •North looked to Prussia for protection while the South looked to Austria.
    •German leaders obstructed nationalism – they wanted to protect their own power and position, nationalism/unity would destroy this.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________





    FACTOR 2: AUSTRIAN STRENGTH
    •The German states had once belonged to the Holy Roman Empire which was traditionally ruled by Austria.
    •The Austrian Emperor (METTERNICH) was therefore given the presidency of the German Confederation.
    •Austria was considered the major German Power.
    •Many smaller states in awe of Austria
    •Metternich, was personally opposed to both liberalism and nationalism and used repression and press censorship in order to ensure that the German states would not become united. (He was in favour of an autocratic society).
    •In leading the confederation, Austria stamped its authority on it through the Carlsbad Decrees (1819) and the Six Articles (1832).
    •Troppau Congress held in 1820 which Austria had attended along with Prussia and Russia had agreed to suppress liberal and nationalist uprisings.
    •Real strength of Austria demonstrated in 1850 with the humiliation at olmutz where Austria forced Prussia to back down on their proposal of a Kleindeutsch (A new Germany without Austria).
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    FACTOR 3: NATIONALISM (WEAKNESS)
    •Nationalist were divided over a ‘Kleindeutsch’ or ‘Grossdeutsch’
    •Division amongst revolutionaries
    •Self interest of German rulers
    •Apathy – most Germans had little desire to see a united Germany, only the educated middle classes really cared (the plough!)
    •Frankfurt Parliament failure – lack of clear aims, no army/ civil service, lack of decisive leadership.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    FACTOR 4: CONFDERATION (GERMAN)
    •Created after the defeat of napoleon in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna (The Vienna Settlement)
    •In addition, attitudes had been changing towards women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
    •Its stated aim was to maintain the independence of all the separate German states.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________

    FACTOR 5: ATTITUDES (FOREIGN)
    •Other countries were happy for Germany to remain weak and divided.
    •A strong unified Germany may upset the balance of power in Europe.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    FACTOR 6: PRUSSIA (SUSPISION OF)
    •There was a feeling that if unification were to take place that Prussia would have to lead the way and not everyone would trust their motives.
    •There was concern that Prussia would arrange things in such a way that Prussia would benefit the most.
    •There would be a ‘Prussification’ rather than unification.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    USEFUL QUOTES
    •AJP Taylor described Olmutz as a “total defeat”
    •Golo Mann said the people “seldom looked up from the plough”
    •AJP Taylor said, “Frankfurt suffered from too much experience rather than too little, too much calculation...too many elaborate combinations.”
    •Findlay McKichan states “The Carlsbad Decrees certainly succeeded in keeping Germany quiet for a considerable period of time.”
    •Vienna Settlement – Article 2
    “The aim of the same Confederation shall be the maintenance of the external and internal safety of Germany and the independence and inviolability of the individual German States.”
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    CONCLUSION
    •Sum up the argue and reach a balanced conclusion
    •On the one hand....isolated factor (briefly explain how it led to the enfranchisement of women)...
    •On the other hand....list the other factors that also contributed....
    •Overall, it must be said that there were various factors which prevented Germany for Unifying in 1850. It is therefore appropriate to say that (isolated factor) was not the only obstacle to German Nationalism.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by KatieQuinn11)
    I also have a plan for this essay which might be more useful for you! Good luck for the exam
    You are my hero
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by mattsam12)
    Hiya,

    How long would you guys say your essays are in length (words not pages) as i'm worried i'm expecting myself to write too much and in the end screw an essay up due to running out of time.
    My homework essays are normally around 1000 words. However under exam conditions it's hard to write a lot from memory. So I'd say 800 is a safe number as long as you include an introduction, 3/4 main body paragraphs and a conclusion. I hope this helps you and good luck for the exam!
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Abbie :))
    You are my hero
    haha! I'm glad you find it useful! I really hope an obstacles question comes up in the exam
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by KatieQuinn11)
    I also have a plan for this essay which might be more useful for you! Good luck for the exam

    Issue 3:- An evaluation of the obstacles to German Unification, 1815-1850.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    CONTEXT (BACKGROUND)
    After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 many German people felt that they had been united by their French enemy and that the German states could better defend themselves in future as a united nation. However, although there was a recognisable growth of nationalism in Germany between 1815 and 1850, a unified Germany was not achieved during this time. Even although the nationalists came close in 1849 with the short lived Frankfurt Parliament, it appeared that there remained too many obstacles in the way.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    INTRODUCTION
    Explain the isolated factor briefly and list the other relevant factors to be taken into account
    Example Factors:

    • Particularism (religion divisions)
    • Austrian Strength (Metternich, 1920 Troppau Congress)
    • Nationalism (weakness)
    • Confederation (German)
    • Attitudes (foreign)
    • Prussia (suspicion of)

    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    FACTOR 1: PARTICULARISM
    • Religion the main factor here – Northern German states mostly protestant while the Southern states were Catholic.
    •North looked to Prussia for protection while the South looked to Austria.
    •German leaders obstructed nationalism – they wanted to protect their own power and position, nationalism/unity would destroy this.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________





    FACTOR 2: AUSTRIAN STRENGTH
    •The German states had once belonged to the Holy Roman Empire which was traditionally ruled by Austria.
    •The Austrian Emperor (METTERNICH) was therefore given the presidency of the German Confederation.
    •Austria was considered the major German Power.
    •Many smaller states in awe of Austria
    •Metternich, was personally opposed to both liberalism and nationalism and used repression and press censorship in order to ensure that the German states would not become united. (He was in favour of an autocratic society).
    •In leading the confederation, Austria stamped its authority on it through the Carlsbad Decrees (1819) and the Six Articles (1832).
    •Troppau Congress held in 1820 which Austria had attended along with Prussia and Russia had agreed to suppress liberal and nationalist uprisings.
    •Real strength of Austria demonstrated in 1850 with the humiliation at olmutz where Austria forced Prussia to back down on their proposal of a Kleindeutsch (A new Germany without Austria).
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    FACTOR 3: NATIONALISM (WEAKNESS)
    •Nationalist were divided over a ‘Kleindeutsch’ or ‘Grossdeutsch’
    •Division amongst revolutionaries
    •Self interest of German rulers
    •Apathy – most Germans had little desire to see a united Germany, only the educated middle classes really cared (the plough!)
    •Frankfurt Parliament failure – lack of clear aims, no army/ civil service, lack of decisive leadership.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    FACTOR 4: CONFDERATION (GERMAN)
    •Created after the defeat of napoleon in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna (The Vienna Settlement)
    •In addition, attitudes had been changing towards women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
    •Its stated aim was to maintain the independence of all the separate German states.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________

    FACTOR 5: ATTITUDES (FOREIGN)
    •Other countries were happy for Germany to remain weak and divided.
    •A strong unified Germany may upset the balance of power in Europe.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    FACTOR 6: PRUSSIA (SUSPISION OF)
    •There was a feeling that if unification were to take place that Prussia would have to lead the way and not everyone would trust their motives.
    •There was concern that Prussia would arrange things in such a way that Prussia would benefit the most.
    •There would be a ‘Prussification’ rather than unification.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    USEFUL QUOTES
    •AJP Taylor described Olmutz as a “total defeat”
    •Golo Mann said the people “seldom looked up from the plough”
    •AJP Taylor said, “Frankfurt suffered from too much experience rather than too little, too much calculation...too many elaborate combinations.”
    •Findlay McKichan states “The Carlsbad Decrees certainly succeeded in keeping Germany quiet for a considerable period of time.”
    •Vienna Settlement – Article 2
    “The aim of the same Confederation shall be the maintenance of the external and internal safety of Germany and the independence and inviolability of the individual German States.”
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    CONCLUSION
    •Sum up the argue and reach a balanced conclusion
    •On the one hand....isolated factor (briefly explain how it led to the enfranchisement of women)...
    •On the other hand....list the other factors that also contributed....
    •Overall, it must be said that there were various factors which prevented Germany for Unifying in 1850. It is therefore appropriate to say that (isolated factor) was not the only obstacle to German Nationalism.
    ________________________________ ________________________________ __________________
    ooh wow thank you so much
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by RachaelW160)
    does anyone know any good sites for Germany, things happened in my school and we were closed so couldn't finish the course, thanks!
    http://thegordonschools.typepad.co.uk/history/higher/ This is a really good website for most of the topics in Higher. If you search through it you'll find all the Germany stuff... Good luck in the exam!
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    What are the best essays to attempt to remember for Britain? Liberal Reforms? Democracy?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    anyone got an idea/predictions of what will come up in Road to War and the British Topic?
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by EatAndRevise)
    What are the best essays to attempt to remember for Britain? Liberal Reforms? Democracy?

    (Original post by m00n)
    anyone got an idea/predictions of what will come up in Road to War and the British Topic?
    British topic, I'd remember both liberals as I'm sure one will show up, the one about women's rights is likely, and a democracy one, but I don't know which as I started higher history late so I haven't covered that stuff
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Abbie :))
    British topic, I'd remember both liberals as I'm sure one will show up, the one about women's rights is likely, and a democracy one, but I don't know which as I started higher history late so I haven't covered that stuff
    But the democracy topic came up last year, so I am not too confident that the SQA would put it in the year after..? But yes, the women's rights one is a point which I thought possible.
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by EatAndRevise)
    But the democracy topic came up last year, so I am not too confident that the SQA would put it in the year after..? But yes, the women's rights one is a point which I thought possible.
    I'm thick with the first two topics, and done labour for my extended essay so I'm just focusing on the 2 liberals and women
 
 
 
Poll
Which Fantasy Franchise is the best?
Applying to university

The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE

Quick reply
Reputation gems: You get these gems as you gain rep from other members for making good contributions and giving helpful advice.