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    Does anyone have a prediction list for the topics likely to come up relating to the article?
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    On exam questions about the spirometer practical it always mentions calibration for volume and calibration for time on the mark schemes, what does that mean? Is it setting the drum to rotate at a fixed speed?
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    (Original post by phiiiilly)
    Does anyone have a prediction list for the topics likely to come up relating to the article?
    https://www.tes.com/teaching-resourc...-aids-11271853
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    (Original post by etherealinsanity)
    Also, I had a question about the rods and action potentials. I'm sorry about all these questions.

    In the green book, it says rods that are exposed to light have their rhodopsin broken down into opsin and retinal. This bleaching means that Na+ channels are closed, but Na+ is still actively pumped out causing the rod cell to enter a state of hyperpolarisation. This hyperpolarisation is a generator potential in the rod which, if large enough to reach the threshold, will allow neurotransmitter substance to enter into the synapse which will stimulate an action potential at the bipolar cell.

    The orange book, however, says that the state of hyperpolarisation in the rod cell means no neurotransmitter (glutamate) is released, and this leads to an action potential occuring in the rod cell.

    I'm confused about the role of the neurotransmitter. The orange book also says neurotransmitter is released when rods are exposed to darkness, which prevents an action potential occuring.
    The orange book is talking about inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e. glutamate. If glutamate is released into the synapse and binds to the receptors on the post-synaptic membrane then the bipolar neurone cannot depolarise as the neurotransmitter inhibits it from doing so. I ignored what the green books says because the orange book is more accurate in terms on mark scheme answers.
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    (Original post by phiiiilly)
    Does anyone have a prediction list for the topics likely to come up relating to the article?
    not topics but this website has a list of questions (look for scientific article question links )
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    Great I just paid for that resource and now it won't download on my phone and I'm in a hotel for the night before my exam! Anyone have a list of article related topics that I don't need to pay for hahaha x
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    Does anyone know how 'assassin cells' may target the cancerous ones? (scientific article) :/
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    (Original post by iluv)
    The orange book is talking about inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e. glutamate. If glutamate is released into the synapse and binds to the receptors on the post-synaptic membrane then the bipolar neurone cannot depolarise as the neurotransmitter inhibits it from doing so. I ignored what the green books says because the orange book is more accurate in terms on mark scheme answers.
    Okay. Thank you.
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    (Original post by mxntrose)
    Does anyone know how 'assassin cells' may target the cancerous ones? (scientific article) :/
    I would guess in the same way as a T killer cell. Identify the antigens/proteins on the surface membrane and kill the cell via phagocytosis.
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    (Original post by HasanAlam)
    On exam questions about the spirometer practical it always mentions calibration for volume and calibration for time on the mark schemes, what does that mean? Is it setting the drum to rotate at a fixed speed?
    I think it's unlikely we'll need to know much but you calibrate for volume using a calibration syringe (I've seen that as a mark point a few times). Basically it has a set volume of air and you put it in then read the trace (how many vertical squares) so you know what the volume is. To calibrate for time I think you just make the trace run for a minute then see how many horizontal squares it's gone over. Then you can use that to determine the time and volume of an actual breathing trace.

    Most questions seem to focus on the trace itself rather than operating the machine though so it should be fine.
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    What do we need to know about promoters and transcription factors?
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    (Original post by iipebblesii)
    What do we need to know about promoters and transcription factors?
    also want to know this
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    (Original post by Daniel9998)
    also want to know this
    Yeah I'm looking at this aswell but I'm pretty sure its a long the lines of transcription factors bind to the promoter region, or something like the start of the strand that is being read and essentially just speeds it up, or skips certain coding parts.

    BUT IM NOT SURE
    a proper answer would be cushty
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    (Original post by Daniel9998)
    also want to know this
    Hiya
    We basically need to explain how a gene is activated. Steroid hormones(oestrogen and testosterone) enter the cell membrane and bind to a receptor which enters the nucleus and it either activates or becomes and transcription factor. Whereas any other hormone e.g the auxin IAA bind to receptors in the cell surface membrane and activates a secondary messenger which can either become or activate a transcription factor. The role of a transcription factor is that it binds onto the promoter region in a gene this causes rna polymerase to bind to the promoter region with the transcription factor and this forms a transcription initiation complex and the gene is activated and mRNA is formed etc. be careful the steroid and peptide hormones activate the transcription factor in a different way. (Sorry for the long paragraph I was typing on my phone 😩)
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    How might a timing switch work? (Paragraph 27)
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    (Original post by FerrousS)
    I think it's unlikely we'll need to know much but you calibrate for volume using a calibration syringe (I've seen that as a mark point a few times). Basically it has a set volume of air and you put it in then read the trace (how many vertical squares) so you know what the volume is. To calibrate for time I think you just make the trace run for a minute then see how many horizontal squares it's gone over. Then you can use that to determine the time and volume of an actual breathing trace.

    Most questions seem to focus on the trace itself rather than operating the machine though so it should be fine.
    Thanks.
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    Can you post it on here? I have a problem logging in
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    If i flop tommorows papers its game over.. Uni game..career game.. All gone..
    If only Hope was released from Pandora's Box...
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    suggest how a kill switch might cause a cell to commit suicide....any ideas?
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    (Original post by LUCYDS)
    suggest how a kill switch might cause a cell to commit suicide....any ideas?
    the kill switch is synthetically produced and placed into assassin cells, 'switch' in general refers to gene regulation.
    I think this is the paragraph related to cancerous cells, so from that thought; cancerous cells release chemicals which stimulative the synthetic pathway in assassin cells to produce a transcription factor which binds to the promoter region of DNA, activates the gene coding for enzymes (via transcription and translation) which secretes apoptosis, ie. self suicide of the cell

    insta @abcdefghijkleila_
 
 
 
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