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    (Original post by skier16)
    Ah okay thats fine then.

    any particular one? I have quite a lot so it's probably too much to put them all up!
    What ones do you have? Health and welfare provision- gov or individualist would be helpful and "to what extent do social and economic inequalities continue to exist in the uk?" Thanks


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    (Original post by skier16)
    Ah okay thats fine then.

    any particular one? I have quite a lot so it's probably too much to put them all up!
    Do you have anything on individualism vs collectivism or govt. responses to reduce BME inequalities?
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    (Original post by xoJennyox)
    Do you have anything on individualism vs collectivism or govt. responses to reduce BME inequalities?
    unfortunatly they're literally the 2 I don't have! I know I could never write anything about indivualism / collectivism and (I'm assuming BME is ethnic groups?) I always choose gender for that questions. Sorry!
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    (Original post by skier16)
    You see for a Health and Wealth question about lifestyle choices affecting health, is is possible to mention lifestyle choices at the beginning, but then basically link everything back to income and so conclude that no, income is more important in affecting health?
    This seemed to be what my teacher was saying but I wasn't sure.

    Also, I have some essay plans typed up on health and wealth, USA, global security and voting systems if anyone wants any. Can either post them here or mail them to you.
    Do you have any essay on factors affecting wealth or health, such as income?? or social and economic inequalities by any chance??


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    (Original post by skier16)
    unfortunatly they're literally the 2 I don't have! I know I could never write anything about indivualism / collectivism and (I'm assuming BME is ethnic groups?) I always choose gender for that questions. Sorry!
    Oh never mind then...I don't have anything on them and they seem unlikely to come up this year anyway. I may just revise of them just in case .

    Can you post the rest up that you have?
    And are you doing topic A4 by any chance?
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    *essay plans


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    (Original post by Scrabble96)
    What ones do you have? Health and welfare provision- gov or individualist would be helpful and "to what extent do social and economic inequalities continue to exist in the uk?" Thanks


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    Unfortunately I don't have the individualist / collectivist one but here's my social and economic plan (This got 13/15 the other week by the way)

    To what extent do social and economic inequalities continue to exist in the UK? (2007)


    Para 1: Poverty Inequalities (geography)

    • Wealth of the nation as a whole is increasing – more likely (68%) to own your own home than ever before
    • Government policies targeted at reducing poverty further – e.g. Universal Credit introduced by current coalition to try and make sure income does not drop if people move off benefits and into low paid work
    • BUT ¼ of population live in poverty and the UK is said to have one of the least equal distributions of wealth in Europe - the most wealthy 5% own 45% of all wealth
    • Clear north / south geographical split
    • All 10 of the most deprived areas in Scotland are in Glasgow – arguably due to loss of traditional industries that were most prevalent in the north – this will take generations to over come


    Para 2: Health Inequalities

    • Longest life expectancy ever recorded – 78 for men and 82 for women, overall health of the population is improving
    • NHS has developed many new drugs / treatments
    • BUT Gap between rich and poor increasing – wealth has a significant effect of health. Factors such as poor housing – 85% of children who live in damp flats experience breathing problems
    • Postcode lottery – some health authorities will pay for treatments, e.g. fertility, whilst others will not. Some drugs only available in certain areas – shown that the most affluent areas receive more money despite being on healthier on average
    • Life expectancy varies dramatically between areas – man from Drumchapel (poor) is two and a half times more likely to die before 65 than a man from Bearsden



    Para 3: Poverty Inequalities (Gender)

    • Women make up 60% university population
    • Outperforming boys at school
    • More likely than every to use these grades to get into traditionally male dominated jobs such as law, accounting, engineering
    • More female lawyers under 35 than male
    • Suggests women will go on to take up well paid, management positions in the future
    • Government policies to reduce inequalities such as the Equality Act 2010
    • BUT still 'glass ceiling' – stopped by invisible barriers such as sexism etc...
    • This is shown to still exist by there still being a pay gap: women in full time work earn 10% less per hour than men in the same job
    • 4/5 paid carers are women – the care sector's poor pay contributes greatly to pay gap


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    (Original post by xoJennyox)
    Oh never mind then...I don't have anything on them and they seem unlikely to come up this year anyway. I may just revise of them just in case .

    Can you post the rest up that you have?
    And are you doing topic A4 by any chance?
    I'm doing A4 yes
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    For an essay on, for example, the impact on income on health, what else besides income would you do a paragraph on?
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    (Original post by skier16)
    You see for a Health and Wealth question about lifestyle choices affecting health, is is possible to mention lifestyle choices at the beginning, but then basically link everything back to income and so conclude that no, income is more important in affecting health?
    This seemed to be what my teacher was saying but I wasn't sure.

    Also, I have some essay plans typed up on health and wealth, USA, global security and voting systems if anyone wants any. Can either post them here or mail them to you.
    Have you got anything on media influences? And the question about media shaping political attitudes the same as to what extent does the media influence voting behaviour?

    Please can you post all your plans for voting systems here ^_^?
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    (Original post by youjustburnkid)
    For an essay on, for example, the impact on income on health, what else besides income would you do a paragraph on?
    Lifestyle choices would be included in that I think. Talk about how choice is involved and people are not forced to smoke or drink, however are just more likely if they earn a lower income or live in deprived areas.
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    Thank you skier16 what are you predicting for health and wealth?


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    (Original post by skier16)
    Unfortunately I don't have the individualist / collectivist one but here's my social and economic plan (This got 13/15 the other week by the way)

    To what extent do social and economic inequalities continue to exist in the UK? (2007)


    Para 1: Poverty Inequalities (geography)

    • Wealth of the nation as a whole is increasing – more likely (68%) to own your own home than ever before
    • Government policies targeted at reducing poverty further – e.g. Universal Credit introduced by current coalition to try and make sure income does not drop if people move off benefits and into low paid work
    • BUT ¼ of population live in poverty and the UK is said to have one of the least equal distributions of wealth in Europe - the most wealthy 5% own 45% of all wealth
    • Clear north / south geographical split
    • All 10 of the most deprived areas in Scotland are in Glasgow – arguably due to loss of traditional industries that were most prevalent in the north – this will take generations to over come


    Para 2: Health Inequalities

    • Longest life expectancy ever recorded – 78 for men and 82 for women, overall health of the population is improving
    • NHS has developed many new drugs / treatments
    • BUT Gap between rich and poor increasing – wealth has a significant effect of health. Factors such as poor housing – 85% of children who live in damp flats experience breathing problems
    • Postcode lottery – some health authorities will pay for treatments, e.g. fertility, whilst others will not. Some drugs only available in certain areas – shown that the most affluent areas receive more money despite being on healthier on average
    • Life expectancy varies dramatically between areas – man from Drumchapel (poor) is two and a half times more likely to die before 65 than a man from Bearsden



    Para 3: Poverty Inequalities (Gender)

    • Women make up 60% university population
    • Outperforming boys at school
    • More likely than every to use these grades to get into traditionally male dominated jobs such as law, accounting, engineering
    • More female lawyers under 35 than male
    • Suggests women will go on to take up well paid, management positions in the future
    • Government policies to reduce inequalities such as the Equality Act 2010
    • BUT still 'glass ceiling' – stopped by invisible barriers such as sexism etc...
    • This is shown to still exist by there still being a pay gap: women in full time work earn 10% less per hour than men in the same job
    • 4/5 paid carers are women – the care sector's poor pay contributes greatly to pay gap


    I love you .
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    (Original post by skier16)
    Unfortunately I don't have the individualist / collectivist one but here's my social and economic plan (This got 13/15 the other week by the way)

    To what extent do social and economic inequalities continue to exist in the UK? (2007)


    Para 1: Poverty Inequalities (geography)

    • Wealth of the nation as a whole is increasing – more likely (68%) to own your own home than ever before
    • Government policies targeted at reducing poverty further – e.g. Universal Credit introduced by current coalition to try and make sure income does not drop if people move off benefits and into low paid work
    • BUT ¼ of population live in poverty and the UK is said to have one of the least equal distributions of wealth in Europe - the most wealthy 5% own 45% of all wealth
    • Clear north / south geographical split
    • All 10 of the most deprived areas in Scotland are in Glasgow – arguably due to loss of traditional industries that were most prevalent in the north – this will take generations to over come


    Para 2: Health Inequalities

    • Longest life expectancy ever recorded – 78 for men and 82 for women, overall health of the population is improving
    • NHS has developed many new drugs / treatments
    • BUT Gap between rich and poor increasing – wealth has a significant effect of health. Factors such as poor housing – 85% of children who live in damp flats experience breathing problems
    • Postcode lottery – some health authorities will pay for treatments, e.g. fertility, whilst others will not. Some drugs only available in certain areas – shown that the most affluent areas receive more money despite being on healthier on average
    • Life expectancy varies dramatically between areas – man from Drumchapel (poor) is two and a half times more likely to die before 65 than a man from Bearsden



    Para 3: Poverty Inequalities (Gender)

    • Women make up 60% university population
    • Outperforming boys at school
    • More likely than every to use these grades to get into traditionally male dominated jobs such as law, accounting, engineering
    • More female lawyers under 35 than male
    • Suggests women will go on to take up well paid, management positions in the future
    • Government policies to reduce inequalities such as the Equality Act 2010
    • BUT still 'glass ceiling' – stopped by invisible barriers such as sexism etc...
    • This is shown to still exist by there still being a pay gap: women in full time work earn 10% less per hour than men in the same job
    • 4/5 paid carers are women – the care sector's poor pay contributes greatly to pay gap


    Thank you SO much!!!! Do you have an essay plan for income affecting health by any chance???


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    (Original post by xoJennyox)
    Have you got anything on media influences? And the question about media shaping political attitudes the same as to what extent does the media influence voting behaviour?

    Please can you post all your plans for voting systems here ^_^?
    I haven't done media because it's pretty much certain not to come up this year as it was the 2012 paper.

    These are voting systems - sorry it's a bit of a long post!

    STV vs FPTP


    Para 1: Stable Government
    FPTP

    • Produces a majority governments
    • Clear opposition and government
    • This means that policies voters elected the government on can be implemented
    • BUT 2010 produced a Cons / Lib Dem coalition and so therefore not always reliable

    STV

    • Almost always produces coalitions – In 2007 there were only 2 wards under single party rule
    • Arguably undemocratic – no one voted for a coalition and
    • Leads to 'compromise politics' policies can't be implemented because parties views could clash


    Para 2: Voter Choice
    FPTP

    • Simple majority so only 1 vote – means you can't express preference
    • Wasted votes are a real problem
    • This promotes tactical voting – feel shouldn't vote for smaller parties because they won't come first

    STV

    • No votes wasted – can rank candidates within AND between parties,
    • Also more candidates stand
    • For example in 2003 (local council election run under FPTP) 61 wards has no competition whereas 2012 had no unopposed returns at all.


    Para 3: Voter Representation through Broad Proportionality
    FPTP

    • Simple majority and so percentage of seats does not equal percentage of votes
    • For example in 2005 Labour won a majority government (55% MPs) with just 35% of the popular vote
    • Possible because support is concentrated in areas and so they win constituencies
    • Clearly not representative – more voted against the government than for

    STV

    • Under STV voters rank candidates and the candidates who reach a set quota are elected. Votes are reallocated until all seats are filled.
    • This means that percentage of seats roughly equals percentage of votes
    • For example in the 2012 Scottish Local government elections the SNP won 32% of the popular vote and so 34% of seats
    • This is representative of the voters views – even if your first choice is not elected, chances are your 2nd or 3rd will be


    AMS vs FPTP

    Para 1: Stable Government
    FPTP

    • Produces a majority governments
    • Clear opposition and government
    • This means that policies voters elected the government on can be implemented and therefore their views are being represented AND shows voter choice
    • BUT 2010 produced a Cons / Lib Dem coalition and so therefore not always reliable

    AMS

    • Feature of AMS is almost always producing coalitions or minority Governments – e.g. SNP from 2007 - 2011
    • Arguably undemocratic – no one voted for a coalition and so this is unrepresentative of electorates opinion
    • Leads to 'compromise politics' policies can't be implemented because parties views could clash, especially if ideologically opposite – not voter choice


    Para 2: Voter Choice
    FPTP

    • Easy to understand – 'x' marks the spot
    • BUT simple majority so only 1 vote – means you can't express preference and therefore not much giving voters choice
    • Wasted votes are a real problem
    • This can promote tactical voting – feel shouldn't vote for smaller parties because they won't come first, e.g. Greens

    AMS

    • 2 votes
    • 1st ballot for constituency MSP (vote for candidate) and 2nd ballot for regional MSP (vote for party)
    • Shows voter choice because you have opportunity to choose 2 different parties


    Para 3: Voter Representation through Broad Proportionality
    FPTP

    • Simple majority and so percentage of seats does not equal percentage of votes
    • For example in 2005 Labour won a majority government (55% MPs) with just 35% of the popular vote
    • Possible because support is concentrated in areas and so they win constituencies
    • Clearly not representative – more voted against the government than for

    AMS

    • Form of PR and so votes usually equal seats
    • E.g. in 2007 SNP won 35% vote and 36% seat
    • BUT doesn't always deliver expected and fair results
    • E.g. in 2011, SNP only won 44% of the popular vote but got enough seats to form a majority government
    • Possible because of the constituency ballot (run under FPTP) where they had a landslide victory over Labour, winning 53/73 seats, despite coming 2nd in regional ballot (party list)

    • Therefore AMS is not always truly representative although more so than pure FPTP


    PR vs FPTP

    Para 1: Stable Government
    FPTP

    • Produces a majority governments
    • Clear opposition and government
    • This means that policies voters elected the government on can be implemented

    • BUT 2010 produced a Cons / Lib Dem coalition and so therefore not always reliable

    PR

    • Feature of PR systems is almost always producing coalitions or minority Governments – In 2007 there were only 2 wards under single party rule, using STV
    • Arguably undemocratic – no one voted for a coalition

    • Leads to 'compromise politics' policies can't be implemented because parties views could clash


    Para 2: Voter Representation through Broad Proportionality
    FPTP

    • Simple majority and so percentage of seats does not equal percentage of votes
    • For example in 2005 Labour won a majority government (55% MPs) with just 35% of the popular vote
    • Clearly not representative – more voted against the government than for

    PR

    • Under a pure PR system such as Party List the percentage of votes directly translates into percentage of seats
    • STV / AMS are a bit different but usually broadly proportional – e.g. in 2007 Scottish Government Elections (AMS) the SNP won 32% votes and 36% seats
    • BUT not all PR type voting systems are pure PR and this shows in proportionality
    • E.g. in 2011 the SNP secured a majority government under AMS for the first time, despite only winning 44% of the vote. More voted against than for.
    • Therefore, PR is mostly very representative of voter's views but many systems are not pure PR and so are not always effective at delivering broad proportionality

    Para 3: Voter Choice
    FPTP

    • Simple majority so only 1 vote – means you can't express preference
    • Wasted votes are a real problem
    • This promotes tactical voting

    STV

    • PR always either used 2 ballots (AMS) and / or ability to list preferences (STV / Party List)
    • This leads to more candidates standing (increased candidate participation) as the result is not a foregone conclusion
    • E.g. in 2003 (FPTP Council Elections) there were 61 wards with no competition whereas in 2012 (STV) there were no unopposed returns

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    (Original post by skier16)
    I haven't done media because it's pretty much certain not to come up this year as it was the 2012 paper.

    These are voting systems - sorry it's a bit of a long post!

    STV vs FPTP




    Para 1: Stable Government
    FPTP

    • Produces a majority governments
    • Clear opposition and government
    • This means that policies voters elected the government on can be implemented

    • BUT 2010 produced a Cons / Lib Dem coalition and so therefore not always reliable

    STV

    • Almost always produces coalitions – In 2007 there were only 2 wards under single party rule
    • Arguably undemocratic – no one voted for a coalition and

    • Leads to 'compromise politics' policies can't be implemented because parties views could clash




    Para 2: Voter Choice
    FPTP

    • Simple majority so only 1 vote – means you can't express preference
    • Wasted votes are a real problem

    • This promotes tactical voting – feel shouldn't vote for smaller parties because they won't come first

    STV

    • No votes wasted – can rank candidates within AND between parties,
    • Also more candidates stand
    • For example in 2003 (local council election run under FPTP) 61 wards has no competition whereas 2012 had no unopposed returns at all.



    Para 3: Voter Representation through Broad Proportionality
    FPTP

    • Simple majority and so percentage of seats does not equal percentage of votes
    • For example in 2005 Labour won a majority government (55% MPs) with just 35% of the popular vote
    • Possible because support is concentrated in areas and so they win constituencies
    • Clearly not representative – more voted against the government than for

    STV

    • Under STV voters rank candidates and the candidates who reach a set quota are elected. Votes are reallocated until all seats are filled.
    • This means that percentage of seats roughly equals percentage of votes
    • For example in the 2012 Scottish Local government elections the SNP won 32% of the popular vote and so 34% of seats
    • This is representative of the voters views – even if your first choice is not elected, chances are your 2nd or 3rd will be



    Conclusion: In conclusion, although FPTP provides for more voter choice / better representation in the form of a stable government, in most other cases STV is superior.







    AMS vs FPTP



    Para 1: Stable Government
    FPTP

    • Produces a majority governments

    • Clear opposition and government
    • This means that policies voters elected the government on can be implemented and therefore their views are being represented AND shows voter choice
    • BUT 2010 produced a Cons / Lib Dem coalition and so therefore not always reliable

    AMS

    • Feature of AMS is almost always producing coalitions or minority Governments – e.g. SNP from 2007 - 2011
    • Arguably undemocratic – no one voted for a coalition and so this is unrepresentative of electorates opinion
    • Leads to 'compromise politics' policies can't be implemented because parties views could clash, especially if ideologically opposite – not voter choice





    Para 2: Voter Choice
    FPTP

    • Easy to understand – 'x' marks the spot
    • BUT simple majority so only 1 vote – means you can't express preference and therefore not much giving voters choice
    • Wasted votes are a real problem

    • This can promote tactical voting – feel shouldn't vote for smaller parties because they won't come first, e.g. Greens

    AMS

    • 2 votes
    • 1st ballot for constituency MSP (vote for candidate) and 2nd ballot for regional MSP (vote for party)
    • Shows voter choice because you have opportunity to choose 2 different parties





    Para 3: Voter Representation through Broad Proportionality
    FPTP

    • Simple majority and so percentage of seats does not equal percentage of votes
    • For example in 2005 Labour won a majority government (55% MPs) with just 35% of the popular vote
    • Possible because support is concentrated in areas and so they win constituencies
    • Clearly not representative – more voted against the government than for

    AMS

    • Form of PR and so votes usually equal seats
    • E.g. in 2007 SNP won 35% vote and 36% seat
    • BUT doesn't always deliver expected and fair results
    • E.g. in 2011, SNP only won 44% of the popular vote but got enough seats to form a majority government
    • Possible because of the constituency ballot (run under FPTP) where they had a landslide victory over Labour, winning 53/73 seats, despite coming 2nd in regional ballot (party list)

    • Therefore AMS is not always truly representative although more so than pure FPTP



    Conclusion: In conclusion, although FPTP provides a more stable government, AMS gives better voter choice and is generally more representative.


    PR vs FPTP

    Para 1: Stable Government
    FPTP

    • Produces a majority governments
    • Clear opposition and government
    • This means that policies voters elected the government on can be implemented

    • BUT 2010 produced a Cons / Lib Dem coalition and so therefore not always reliable

    PR

    • Feature of PR systems is almost always producing coalitions or minority Governments – In 2007 there were only 2 wards under single party rule, using STV
    • Arguably undemocratic – no one voted for a coalition

    • Leads to 'compromise politics' policies can't be implemented because parties views could clash




    Para 2: Voter Representation through Broad Proportionality
    FPTP

    • Simple majority and so percentage of seats does not equal percentage of votes
    • For example in 2005 Labour won a majority government (55% MPs) with just 35% of the popular vote

    • Clearly not representative – more voted against the government than for

    STV

    • Under a pure PR system such as Party List the percentage of votes directly translates into percentage of seats
    • STV / AMS are a bit different but usually broadly proportional – e.g. in 2007 Scottish Government Elections (AMS) the SNP won 32% votes and 36% seats
    • BUT not all PR type voting systems are pure PR and this shows in proportionality
    • E.g. in 2011 the SNP secured a majority government under AMS for the first time, despite only winning 44% of the vote. More voted against than for.
    • Therefore, PR is mostly very representative of voter's views but many systems are not pure PR and so are not always effective at delivering broad proportionality



    Para 3: Voter Choice
    FPTP

    • Simple majority so only 1 vote – means you can't express preference

    • Wasted votes are a real problem

    • This promotes tactical voting

    STV

    • PR always either used 2 ballots (AMS) and / or ability to list preferences (STV / Party List)
    • This leads to more candidates standing (increased candidate participation) as the result is not a foregone conclusion

    • E.g. in 2003 (FPTP Council Elections) there were 61 wards with no competition whereas in 2012 (STV) there were no unopposed returns


    Thank you so much- I really appreciate this . Do you think that we could be asked anything about AV?

    Because if we are, I am going to fail.
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    (Original post by xoJennyox)
    Thank you so much- I really appreciate this . Do you think that we could be asked anything about AV?

    Because if we are, I am going to fail.
    No problem
    Considering we've not even covered AV, hopefully not! I'm going for a PR vs FPTP question this year
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    (Original post by skier16)
    No problem
    Considering we've not even covered AV, hopefully not! I'm going for a PR vs FPTP question this year
    Do you have an essay plan for income affecting health??


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    What UK government policies have reduced poverty?


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    (Original post by skier16)
    No problem
    Considering we've not even covered AV, hopefully not! I'm going for a PR vs FPTP question this year
    Same here, our teacher just told it it is not impossible but just highly unlikely an AV question will come up- but it could.

    I am sure that most other people won't have covered it either so if it comes to the worst, the grade boundaries may be lowered .
 
 
 
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