OCR 2010 A2 Biology Unit 2 - Control, Genome and Environment Watch

clad in armour
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#1121
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#1121
damn ive got loads to do, who reckons I should stay up then?
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student92
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#1122
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(Original post by clad in armour)
damn ive got loads to do, who reckons I should stay up then?
Go to sleep and do it tomorrow
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TX22
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#1123
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could someone define the term gene therapy. Its in one of the specification points.
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by clad in armour)
damn ive got loads to do, who reckons I should stay up then?
Stay stay!!!! :eek3:
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ibysaiyan
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#1125
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(Original post by TX22)
could someone define the term gene therapy. Its in one of the specification points.
Gene therapy is the prevention or fixing of genetic diseases by genetic engineering.
or in other ways manipulating the gene structure
Example spraying of dominant alelle of chromsome 7? for CFTR on liposome balls.
or on an adeniovirus.
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student92
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(Original post by TX22)
could someone define the term gene therapy. Its in one of the specification points.
Treatment of a genetic disorder by altering an individuals genotype. Its used to treat some recessive conditions, such as cystic fibrosis
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TX22
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#1127
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also, what are the differences between somatic and germ line gene therapy?
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TX22
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DNA probes are short length single stranded pieces for DNA that have a base sequence that is complementary to the target base sequence.

DNA probes are used to identify DNA fragments which have a specific base sequence and it is used to identify a gene.

or it can be used to identify a mutated gene
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by TX22)
also, what are the differences between somatic and germ line gene therapy?
Almost forgot about this thread.
Ok here goes:
Somatic therapy deals with non-meiotic cells that is to say cells which are present are cured whereas germ line therapy is one where the whole zygote or the genetic structure is changed to an extent that it passes through sexual division.Its this type of therapy which has caused sensation across.
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by TX22)
DNA probes are short length single stranded pieces for DNA that have a base sequence that is complementary to the target base sequence.

DNA probes are used to identify DNA fragments which have a specific base sequence and it is used to identify a gene.

or it can be used to identify a mutated gene
Ok. Thanks this along with primers and promoters The P band causes lots of confusion.
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ibysaiyan
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*yawns* washes face for the 5th time NO!!! WONT SLEEP NOW...
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Falcon91
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Right, now ive sent all the notes to those that requested it via a download link because i couldnt figure out how to attach files so just click the link and download the word file . But tell me if theyre good and ill make more.
Im going over the other 3 modules again to ensure i know it now.
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Falcon91
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CFTR regulates the transport of chloride ions (Cl-) across the plasma (cell surface)
membrane. Tissues that express the normal CFTR allele secrete alkaline fluids, whereas the secretions of tissues expressing some mutant alleles are acidic.The transport of Cl- by epithelial cells expressing the normal CFTR allele was compared with that by epithelial cells expressing one of 10 different mutant CFTR alleles. In the table, basically Cl- carrying % varies from 100% to 0% shown. Those with less than 30% do not function, those above do function normally.

Question: explain why some mutant CFTR alleles allow normal digestive functioning of the pancreas and others do not.

im stifled as to why the final part of the answer is:
so unable to, accept / transport, HCO3-;
unable to bind ATP;

Im guessing the reference to ATP is referring to energy needed to break down proteins, food etc. I have checked the textbook and it doesnt happen to mention anything about HCO3- ions.


Can anyone shed some light as to WHY this is the answer?

Edit - i understand why it CANT bind to HCO3- ions, its referring to the shape of the CTFR protein so it cant carry them, but then why the HCO3- ions? why not any other alkali? and also then CTFR protein cant bind to ATP, but why would this cause excess mucus production? Is it because the ATP metabolises the breakdown of the of the mucus or...what?

Please help
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I Have No Imagination
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(Original post by Falcon91)
Okay, a lot of people have asked for my notes which im going to make tonight, ill cover module 4, so like heres just a list to help me remember:
RedFanatic
Zoop
Liverpool FC
Maria-16
ibsaiyan
TX22
BuyingTheTicket
skatealexia
sufyaan
dopeyangel
tinkerbelle

Also ill post them up here in this thread and ill also pm you guys with it. Hope they help.
oohh, and me thank you i love you :p:
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by Falcon91)
CFTR regulates the transport of chloride ions (Cl-) across the plasma (cell surface)
membrane. Tissues that express the normal CFTR allele secrete alkaline fluids, whereas the secretions of tissues expressing some mutant alleles are acidic.The transport of Cl- by epithelial cells expressing the normal CFTR allele was compared with that by epithelial cells expressing one of 10 different mutant CFTR alleles. In the table, basically Cl- carrying % varies from 100% to 0% shown. Those with less than 30% do not function, those above do function normally.

Question: explain why some mutant CFTR alleles allow normal digestive functioning of the pancreas and others do not.

im stifled as to why the final part of the answer is:
so unable to, accept / transport, HCO3-;
unable to bind ATP;

Im guessing the reference to ATP is referring to energy needed to break down proteins, food etc. I have checked the textbook and it doesnt happen to mention anything about HCO3- ions.


Can anyone shed some light as to WHY this is the answer?

Edit - i understand why it CANT bind to HCO3- ions, its referring to the shape of the CTFR protein so it cant carry them, but then why the HCO3- ions? why not any other alkali? and also then CTFR protein cant bind to ATP, but why would this cause excess mucus production? Is it because the ATP metabolises the breakdown of the of the mucus or...what?



Please help
I guess the more atp one gets through oxidative phophorylation the more end product water being made as far as the CFTR allele we don't need to know in much detail nevertheless its to do with the glyco-proteins being not complementary so havent got a clue tbh: http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v7/...m0301_292.html
:O go for Cl ions

Oh ALSO THANKS A ZILLION TIMES SPEED OF LIGHT FOR THE DOCUMENTS!I havent read it yet :/ i will once i get back.
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by Falcon91)
CFTR regulates the transport of chloride ions (Cl-) across the plasma (cell surface)
membrane. Tissues that express the normal CFTR allele secrete alkaline fluids, whereas the secretions of tissues expressing some mutant alleles are acidic.The transport of Cl- by epithelial cells expressing the normal CFTR allele was compared with that by epithelial cells expressing one of 10 different mutant CFTR alleles. In the table, basically Cl- carrying % varies from 100% to 0% shown. Those with less than 30% do not function, those above do function normally.

Question: explain why some mutant CFTR alleles allow normal digestive functioning of the pancreas and others do not.

im stifled as to why the final part of the answer is:
so unable to, accept / transport, HCO3-;
unable to bind ATP;

Im guessing the reference to ATP is referring to energy needed to break down proteins, food etc. I have checked the textbook and it doesnt happen to mention anything about HCO3- ions.


Can anyone shed some light as to WHY this is the answer?

Edit - i understand why it CANT bind to HCO3- ions, its referring to the shape of the CTFR protein so it cant carry them, but then why the HCO3- ions? why not any other alkali? and also then CTFR protein cant bind to ATP, but why would this cause excess mucus production? Is it because the ATP metabolises the breakdown of the of the mucus or...what?

Please help
OR maybe the transporter channels are as we know ATP-dependent :O ? either ways Its beyond A-level spec and hasnt been known yet.
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Falcon91
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Cool, no problems and thanks for thr help. It was in the specimen paper hence why i was a bit shocked about it being there but i think my teacher said the spec paper was absolute rubbish.

Doing Chem revision now, seems so much easier than bio for some reason
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ibysaiyan
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(Original post by Falcon91)
Cool, no problems and thanks for thr help. It was in the specimen paper hence why i was a bit shocked about it being there but i think my teacher said the spec paper was absolute rubbish.

Doing Chem revision now, seems so much easier than bio for some reason
Oh was it :O ? then perhaps some synoptic stuff.... :/ if so then it might have to do with ATP dependent channels,glyco-protein shape :/
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Falcon91
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(Original post by ibysaiyan)
Oh was it :O ? then perhaps some synoptic stuff.... :/ if so then it might have to do with ATP dependent channels,glyco-protein shape :/
ive got this info from wiki and tried to decipher the answer:
The product of this gene (the CFTR) is a halide anion channel important in creating sweat, digestive juices and mucus.
What i think: And so where the CFTR doesnt produce properly, the channel itself wouldnt work properly either and thus the anions HCO3- and Cl- wouldnt be transported properly and so no production of alkalis and then the protein possesses two ATP sites which allows the protein to use energy in the form of ATP and so it cant bind to that either so no pumping across if the base structure of the original protein is changed and gives a harmful effect which causes uncontrolled mucus production (e.g. in gene that codes for it cystic fibrosis is caused by a deletion of 3 bases so doesnt fold properly and so fails causing the above i believe).
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Archen
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(Original post by Falcon91)
Right, everything is in there except for social behaviour of primates and the DRD4 receptor (cos i havent even been told anything/looked at it, but its only one page).
Edit - ill do it tomorrow morning for those wanting the notes, too tired to hang on.
could i have a copy also pleeeeeease :love:
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