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    (Original post by BioAgent)
    Rahhh did you get full ums?
    Not sure, 38/40 is the 90% cap...sooo 95%?
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    (Original post by TheLegalDealer)
    This is the first im hearing of this :eek:
    Well don't take my word for it but I've never seen a question referring to classical conditioning AND operant conditioning, it's always the latter
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    (Original post by maisie__x)
    I thought they were two seperate things as well but we learned operant conditioning is where an animal can be trained to show a behaviour if it is offered a treat whereas classical conditioning is where an animal learns to associate two unrelated stimuli through repeated exposure together?
    Yeah but surely the otters associate the man coming to the otter area with the food being presented by the man? Hence making a large argument for it being classical conditioning. I've seen a similar example with a farming bringing food to sheep; sheep run over to trough. Apparently operant conditioning too but to me it's clearly classical?


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    Is phototropism also an example of Taxis? I cant find an example of Taxis.
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    (Original post by BioAgent)
    Is phototropism also an example of Taxis? I cant find an example of Taxis.
    Woodlouse finding shade when subjected to intense light is taxis, surely?
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    (Original post by Klesia)
    The ATP that is made in cyclic photophosphorylation is used in the calvin cycle to reduce and phosphorylate GP so it becomes Triose phosphate, in which carbohydrates and lipids are formed
    Does this happen until NADPH runs out? Because Cyclic photophosphorylation only produces a small volume of ATP
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    (Original post by Beni24)
    Thank you! so what happens to the ATP thats made in cyclic photophosphorylation?
    It's used in the light independent stage to reduce gp to tp
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    (Original post by ChoccyPhilly)
    Woodlouse finding shade when subjected to intense light is taxis, surely?
    your example of a woodlice is a kineses, as the movement is random an increases upon increased subjection to an unfavorable stimuli (the sun), and i think taxis is specific to animals and that tropisms are specific to plants, although there the same as one another? an example of a taxis is the movement of animals towards chemical signals, some worms display positive chemotaxis
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    Is CO2 a primary metabolite, or is it just a waste product? :hmmm:

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    (Original post by Missy1x)
    It's used in the light independent stage to reduce gp to tp
    Thank you! so when does cyclic photophosphorylation happen? Does there have to be certain conditions for it to hapen? or does it happen at the same time as non cyclic photophosphorylation? I thought that it would happen when theres no co2 but then surely the calvin cycle will stop?
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    (Original post by scottPhillipss)
    your example of a woodlice is a kineses, as the movement is random an increases upon increased subjection to an unfavorable stimuli (the sun), and i think taxis is specific to animals and that tropisms are specific to plants, although there the same as one another? an example of a taxis is the movement of animals towards chemical signals, some worms display positive chemotaxis
    I was thinking the same. Hmm I think tropism is definitely for plants only but I dont think taxis is exclusively for animals.Im just going to go with the animal taxis just to be on the safe side.
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    (Original post by Hilton184)
    Yeah but surely the otters associate the man coming to the otter area with the food being presented by the man? Hence making a large argument for it being classical conditioning. I've seen a similar example with a farming bringing food to sheep; sheep run over to trough. Apparently operant conditioning too but to me it's clearly classical?


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    Yeah I'd have called that example classical conditioning too. I only got the question right because it was the last one left in a multiple choice :')
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    (Original post by BioAgent)
    I was thinking the same. Hmm I think tropism is definitely for plants only but I dont think taxis is exclusively for animals.Im just going to go with the animal taxis just to be on the safe side.
    Yeah I would use the word taxis in terms of animal innate responses and tropism in terms of plants. After looking this up on wikipedia, they distinguish between taxis and tropism in this way:

    A taxis (plural taxes[1][2][3] /ˈtæksiːz/, from the Ancient Greek τάξις, meaning "arrangement"[4]) is the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light or the presence of food. Taxes are innate behavioral responses. A taxis differs from a tropism (turning response, often growth towards or away from a stimulus) in that the organism has motility and demonstrates guided movement towards or away from the stimulus source.[5][6] It is sometimes distinguished from a kinesis, a non-directional change in activity in response to a stimulus.

    However saying taxis is a 'guided movement towards/away' doesn't really help, surely tropism a can be classified as guided movement? A turning response is still movement surely? Or is this not the case.

    On the tropism page, it says the word is usually used when talking about plants but is not necessarily restricted to plants, just organisms that do not motility.


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    (Original post by BioAgent)
    Is phototropism also an example of Taxis? I cant find an example of Taxis.
    Phototropism is for plants only and Taxis is for animal behaviour. The example my book gives for taxis is a shark is attracted to a source of blood in the water and so swims towards the source
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    (Original post by maisie__x)
    Yeah I'd have called that example classical conditioning too. I only got the question right because it was the last one left in a multiple choice :')
    I think I've worked it out, but not 100% sure!

    So operant conditioning is when you have an animal initially performing a behaviour and then a reward/punishment, so the animal associates this particular behaviour with the reward/punishment.

    Classical conditioning is when you start off with two different stimuli which then causes a conditioned response. I think the two stimuli must be quite distinct from one another for classical conditioning to be the case.

    Basically operant: behaviour then consequence.
    And classical is two different distinct stimuli.

    So the emphasis on the initial behaviour by the otters in the given question indicates operant conditioning is the case!

    Still an argument for both to be the case really but i think this is the logic behind it!😊


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    (Original post by Hilton184)
    I think I've worked it out, but not 100% sure!

    So operant conditioning is when you have an animal initially performing a behaviour and then a reward/punishment, so the animal associates this particular behaviour with the reward/punishment.

    Classical conditioning is when you start off with two different stimuli which then causes a conditioned response. I think the two stimuli must be quite distinct from one another for classical conditioning to be the case.

    Basically operant: behaviour then consequence.
    And classical is two different distinct stimuli.

    So the emphasis on the initial behaviour by the otters in the given question indicates operant conditioning is the case!

    Still an argument for both to be the case really but i think this is the logic behind it!😊


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    Yeah I think you've got it there thank you for explaining!
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    (Original post by maisie__x)
    Phototropism is for plants only and Taxis is for animal behaviour. The example my book gives for taxis is a shark is attracted to a source of blood in the water and so swims towards the source
    Oh okay thanks
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    (Original post by Hilton184)
    Yeah I would use the word taxis in terms of animal innate responses and tropism in terms of plants. After looking this up on wikipedia, they distinguish between taxis and tropism in this way:

    A taxis (plural taxes[1][2][3] /ˈtæksiːz/, from the Ancient Greek τάξις, meaning "arrangement"[4]) is the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light or the presence of food. Taxes are innate behavioral responses. A taxis differs from a tropism (turning response, often growth towards or away from a stimulus) in that the organism has motility and demonstrates guided movement towards or away from the stimulus source.[5][6] It is sometimes distinguished from a kinesis, a non-directional change in activity in response to a stimulus.

    However saying taxis is a 'guided movement towards/away' doesn't really help, surely tropism a can be classified as guided movement? A turning response is still movement surely? Or is this not the case.

    On the tropism page, it says the word is usually used when talking about plants but is not necessarily restricted to plants, just organisms that do not motility.


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    Yeah I agree very vague differentiation of the two. I think its best to just reffer to animals for taxis then.
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    can someone please explain to me how you would know what different wavelengths of light are absorbed/reflected if they give you a question in terms of different coloured filters etc? Thank you!
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    (Original post by Beni24)
    Thank you! so when does cyclic photophosphorylation happen? Does there have to be certain conditions for it to hapen? or does it happen at the same time as non cyclic photophosphorylation? I thought that it would happen when theres no co2 but then surely the calvin cycle will stop?
    The light dependent stage occurs first it's the prodcits of these redactions that are needed for the Calvin cycle such as co2 / atp / reduced nadp
    The light dependant stage is split into two reactions
    Cyclic phosphorylation
    Non cyclic phosphorylation
    It does want matter which they way they occur in becusse in both reactions the prodcits with lo towards the Calvin cycle
    How the products are used
    Atp produced from the the light dependant stage is used to reduce gp to tp
    Reduced meaning loss of hydrogen so reduced nad gives up its h+ ions to form just nadp
 
 
 
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