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    (Original post by Ethereal World)
    Sexual Conflict
    It makes so much sense now...
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    (Original post by Changing Skies)
    Some invertebrates, such as the bed bug, engage in traumatic insemination which involves the male using his penis to pierce the female's abdomen where he will inject his semen into the wound.

    Humans are lucky tbh. Other females have to put up with a lot more crap.
    Excuse me. Black Widow spider....

    (Original post by Little Popcorns)
    bed bugs - why we need feminism
    but you feminists don't care about male black widows spiders being eaten. Typical feminists don't really care about gender equality wahh wahhh
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    (Original post by nomophobia)
    What?! There's worse to come?! :cry2: help. I am so not looking forward to the exam this year >.<

    Lucky you! So what are you doing now?

    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Are you doing D2? If yes it gets much worse!! Sorry! I gave up on 1/2 the content before the exam, came out with a C, but still got an A overall for AS FM D1 is nicer because the algorithms aren't too bad, and you know what the answer is beforehand
    Good luck though, do all the past papers and I'm sure you'll do very well! There isn't a lot of variety on what they can ask

    Chemistry at Oxford now Are you in Yr 12 or 13?
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    'A fact' you say? I do economics. We don't really deal in those, just statistical significance...
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    (Original post by Bruce267099)
    Well it's not really a fact, but if a person earnered £300,000 they would get taxed £111,800
    Unless they had an accountant.
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    (Original post by Zacken)
    Read "Surely you're joking, Mr Feynman", eh?
    I've read 1/3 of that book should finish it off in the summer.

    Have you read '6 easy pieces'?

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    (Original post by ChaoticButterfly)
    Excuse me. Black Widow spider....

    but you feminists don't care about male black widows spiders being eaten. Typical feminists don't really care about gender equality wahh wahhh
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    I really don't like this turn you've taken young man
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    The subjunctive is annoying — French
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    Less than 20% of secondary school science teachers have the specialist background in the subject
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    Awww yiss you've got to love physics
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    From a Bode plot, you can obtain the break frequency among other things (I won't go into detail). Here's a pic of a bode plot
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    2 + 2 = 4
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    (Original post by DiddyDec)
    It makes so much sense now...
    What does? Me? Life?

    From a journal article I wrote in my final year explaining Sexual Conflict:

    Sexual Conflict

    If males and females were both strictly monogamous over their lifetime, sexual conflict would not manifest. However, in nature this scenario is extremely rare, and sexual conflict often arises as males and females have different evolutionary interests concerning reproduction (Parker, 1979). Following this, the two sexes go about increasing their reproductive success in a disparate fashion (Arnqvist & Rowe, 2005). Reproduction and offspring care are costly processes and therefore parents benefit by exploiting each other to reduce their own individual burden of care (Lessells, 1999). The implications of sexual conflict are not trivial; it has been shown to be a key force in driving sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism, extinction and speciation. Sexual conflict can be partitioned into two main categories: pre-zygotic and post-zygotic.

    Pre-Zygotic Sexual Conflict: (Pre-Zygotic being before sexy time happens)

    Angus Bateman derived his famous ‘Bateman principle’ in 1948 following observations of different mating behaviours between the sexes. A core tenet of the principle is that the benefits of polygamy are not always the same for males and females. In general, males gain more from polygyny than females do from polyandry (Bateman, 1948; Arnold, 1994; Queller, 1997). This disparity over mating optima has the ability to promote swift evolution. The “chase-away model” (Basolo, 1990) suggests that males evolve to become bigger and/or more ornamented in order to appeal to the females’ sensory bias (Holland & Rice, 1998). This forms the basis of ‘female choice’- a widely recognised phenomenon in evolutionary biology in which selection favours the exaggeration of male display traits in order to attract the ever-choosy females.

    Post-Zygotic Sexual Conflict (After offspring born)

    Post-zygotic conflict is an outcome of the notion that males and females have a crucial decision to make regarding care provisioning. Parental care is costly- it requires energy and time and is thus a constraint to finding new mates (Clutton-Brock, 1991). However, care is necessary to ensure the survival and healthy development of the offspring. Here arises the conflict as both sexes are selected to exploit the other in order to reduce their individual burden of care (Lessells, 1999). The initial investment in offspring is unequal starting with anisogamy (Parker et al. , 1972) and according to Trivers’ 1972 parental investment theory this has two key outcomes from which the sex roles establish. Firstly, females are more likely to provide care due to the great initial investment in the gamete. Secondly, anisogamy creates a male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR), which results in males competing for females (Alcock, 2009). Therefore, males will greatly reduce their fitness by allocating energy and resources to care provisioning as it directly hinders their ability to mate with other females. In terms of sexual selection, Trivers’ theory builds upon the Bateman principle as it predicts that the sex making the largest investment in care provisioning (generally females) will typically be more discriminating. Pre- and post-zygotic conflicts are as such, intertwined.

    Thus, not only does sexual conflict form the basis of the conventional sex roles (Figure 1) but Thomas et al. (2007) also referred to it as a ‘powerful paradigm to understand breeding systems’.

    Zarga tagging you as I thought you might find this interesting, this is one of the reasons I hate western feminism and the notion of some sort of sex-role-free world because well, our sex roles are actually biological in nature and we won't be overturning millions of years of evolution anytime soon.
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    When you add together infinitely many numbers, the value that you get can depend on the order in which you add them.
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    (Original post by 13 1 20 8 42)
    2 + 2 = 4
    So you study media then?
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    (Original post by Indeterminate)
    Subject: Maths

    Fact:

    \displaystyle \dfrac{1}{\pi} = \dfrac{2\sqrt{2}}{9801} \sum_{k \geqslant 0} \dfrac{(4k)!}{(k!)^4}\left( \dfrac{26390k + 1103}{396^{4k}} \right)
    4k vision :cool:
    (Original post by nucdev)
    Assembling a portfolio of securities diversifies away the specific risk attached to each individual security.

    Risk is reduced most effectively if you combine securities with low or, especially, negative covariance – such as an oil firm whose share price drops when there’s a breakthrough in battery technology, and an electric car firm whose share price rises when this happens.

    Subject: Economics (unsurprisingly)
    "Don't put all your eggs in one basket" seems to be the advice here. And quite intuitive. Have you learned anything counter intuitive in economics yet?
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    (Original post by Zargabaath)
    So you study media then?
    I don't think that is required knowledge for media students
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    (Original post by morgan8002)
    When you add together infinitely many numbers, the value that you get can depend on the order in which you add them.
    surely the answer is always infinite?

    It seems the ordering only matters when you 'break' the cycle and add all the numbers up to a finite point. But then you haven't actually added an infinite amount of numbers.
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    (Original post by Mathstatician)
    surely the answer is always infinite?

    It seems the ordering only matters when you 'break' the cycle and add all the numbers up to a finite point. But then you haven't actually added an infinite amount of numbers.
    No, not always. The most trivial example is 0 + 0 + 0+ ...+ 0+... = 0. There are many others such as 1 + \frac{1}{2} + \frac{1}{4} + ... + \frac{1}{2^n}+...= 2. There are of course infinite series that don't converge to a finite number, which are called divergent.


    The usual example of where order matters is the alternating harmonic series, 1-\frac{1}{2} + \frac{1}{3} - \frac{1}{4} +\frac{1}{5} - \frac{1}{6} + \frac{1}{7}+ ...+\frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n} + ... = \ln 2.
    It's too late for me to work out a rearrangement, so here's an example of a rearrangement that has a different value:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altern...Rearrangements
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    (Original post by morgan8002)
    No, not always. The most trivial example is 0 + 0 + 0+ ...+ 0+... = 0. There are many others such as 1 + \frac{1}{2} + \frac{1}{4} + ... + \frac{1}{2^n}+...= 2. There are of course infinite series that don't converge to a finite number, which are called divergent.


    The usual example of where order matters is the alternating harmonic series, 1-\frac{1}{2} + \frac{1}{3} - \frac{1}{4} +\frac{1}{5} - \frac{1}{6} + \frac{1}{7}+ ...+\frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n} + ... = \ln 2.
    It's too late for me to work out a rearrangement, so here's an example of a rearrangement that has a different value:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altern...Rearrangements
    Thanks. This is interesting.
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    Very Important Poster
    Maths at A-level and Maths at uni are two very different things. :moon:
 
 
 
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