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    http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=314&issue=114

    If on reality TV this is a pretty good site. Have a nose
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    So I am doing both Med4 and Med6 tomorrow.

    I have been studying the News and Audience.

    I feel absolutely unprepared. I have very little case studies although I do know what is going on currently in the news as I do follow it myself.

    Audience. I don't understandddd! What am I supposed to do, write about EVERY audience theory? And what examples could I possibly use?

    HELP!
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    (Original post by individual_08)
    http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=314&issue=114

    If on reality TV this is a pretty good site. Have a nose
    yeah thats a great site btw
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    (Original post by paperdollx)
    So I am doing both Med4 and Med6 tomorrow.

    I have been studying the News and Audience.

    I feel absolutely unprepared. I have very little case studies although I do know what is going on currently in the news as I do follow it myself.

    Audience. I don't understandddd! What am I supposed to do, write about EVERY audience theory? And what examples could I possibly use?

    HELP!
    do u have any theory on news?
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    I am only relying on galtung and ruge's 12 news values.
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    (Original post by sushAA)
    I am only relying on galtung and ruge's 12 news values.
    i did that last year and got an E but that was probably because of the way i stated them lol
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    Hey im doing med 4 tomorow and i thought i'd just post my exam structures i plan to use (and its helped with revision) for any one doing the genre and representation questions:

    Representation:

    Introduction: What is a stereotype? Use Martin Barker and Richard Dyer to back up theories and introduce women as a stereotype:
    • Form of categorisation/generating order/labelling
    • Hyper-real – separates the real from the hyper real
    • Lipmann ordering process
    • The Elite defines and controls the stereotypes that are created by and function in the mass media
    • Certain social groups carry ideologies – e.g. women=negative
    • Historicise, looking into Berger's theory of 'Men look, Women appear'.
    o Ophelia in Hamlet - Passive
    o Renaissance Art – The Birth of Venus by Botticelli


    Representation - Basically go through how women are portrayed in:

    Films - Linking in with Institution/Narrative/Media Language/Audience/ Genre / representation

    Texts: James Bond, Some like It Hot, Legally Blonde, Million Dollar Baby, Terminator 2.

    • Women are objectified for a male audience (Laura Mulvey)
    o James Bond – Dr. No – Voyeurism/Narcissism (male see’s himself in Bond)/ Duplicite Gaze/ camera angles
    o James Bond - Gold Finger – Fetishism/camera angles
    o The stereotype of ‘Dumb Blonde’. ‘Some Like It Hot’, Marilyn Monroe – fetishised in clothing/ camera angles
    • Patriarchal cinema – cinema for men, controlled by men, in order to change this we must change the signs connected with cinema. (Johnston). Rise in action genre, and narrative’s are simple linear structures, easier for men to understand.
    • Changed in the 80's with the new action woman, and how she attempts to become the central protagonist, what she must do to achieve that, e.g. muscular form, falic symbols (Yvonne Tasker).
    • Talk about how there is only 2 female directors on the ‘A’ List – Katherine Bigalow (produces action films) and Nora Ephron (produces Rom/Coms), how this reflects the institution.

    Games - Ideology, linking in to the action women - Lara Croft, she is the new woman 'Cyber Goddess' but she is still sexualised ‘Cyber Bimbo’.

    TV - Ideology using Sex and The City and Heroes - how the women are seen as empowering - using Dianne Meehan here - but then the contract of how they are still sexualised to appeal to the audience - e.g. the cheerleader in Hero's, for the benefit of the institution.

    Advertising - Linking from that how women are objectified sexually to endorse and sell a project. Ideology once more - post modernism - style over substance...

    Magazines - Links into the size zero culture, digital manipulation of images creating false/empty sign, women buying into the false signs by trying to attain the unattainable aesthetic - raise in plastic surgery and eating disorders.

    News - Linking into the false aesthetic - women displayed in newspaper - page 3 - attempt to fight page 3 by a female editor - fails due to Rupert Murdock - linking into Marxist Ideologies of 'The Elite' white, male in control of hegemonic structures.

    Sports- Link into the little reference to women in sports, except when the are seen as a sexual object such as tennis star Anna Kornakova in short skirts, modelling etc.

    Radio and Broadcasting - Show that there is a positive rise in women presenters, especially on radio, which shows women are accepted into a environment where they are valued for there views, and not how the look, because they cannot be seen by an audience.

    Conclude that even in our modern society, women overall are represented in a negative light, as long as Marxist and post modernism is the dominant ideology, and the middle class white male remains in control.

    Genre:
    Genre Question:

    Introduction:

    What is genre?
    • Category of media texts characterized by a particular style, form or content.
    • Set of characteristics that can be identified and related to a specific genre.
    • Can be shown through
    o Narrative
    o Mis-en-scene
    o Costumes
    o Lighting
    o Setting
    o Prop
    • Bring in sci-fi, how it applies a social/political comment on society:
    o Historicise using ‘Metropolis’ – Machinist iconography and social comment on upcoming World War/Nazi regimes.

    Audience:
    • Transgresses through all media functions, e.g. sci-fi channel
    • Fan base – includes film/TV/comic books/the internet (global community)/toys/music
    • Mainly a Male audience
    • Populist genre
    • Global Fan base
    • Multi-billion franchise/audience e.g. Star Trek/ Dr Who (9.8 million per episode)
    • Conventions/Fan clubs
    • Merchandise

    Generic Conventions:
    • Post Modernism:
    o The Island (2005)
     Clones
     Visual Gloss, high concept model
     Hybrid of action and Sci-Fi
     Hyperbolic action
     CGI
     Baudrillard – Simulacra and Simulation – copy of a copy – no original – no history
    o The Matrix (199)
     Baudrillard – Simulacra and Simulation – copy of a copy – no original – no history
     Marxism vs. Hegemony
     Social Interface
     Reflective of today’s world
     Colour Pallet – green tint – reflection on the machines control
    o Children of Men (2006)
     Limited colour pallet – greys/brown
     Low key lighting
     Dystopic vision
     Nietzsche – The failings of humanity
    o Handmaids Tale
     Social comment – pro creation
     Links with Children of Men and The island
    o Blade Runner (1980)
     Pastiche of style – science fiction and film noir
     Entrapping mis-en-scene
     Low-key black-and-white visual style
     Replicates – Baudrillard
     Post modernism – style over substance – life span
     Post apocalyptic vision.
    o Star Trek (The savage curtain 1969)
     Social/political comment on Vietnam/ civil rights/ slavery
     Reflective of time period and American history
     Equal race representation.
     Sci-fi iconography/symbolism- The Spaceship/space setting.
    o Dr Who ( The Doctors Daughter 2008)
     Genetic Engineering
     Sci-fi setting – iconography in ‘The Tardis’ (spaceship)


    Oviously i don't know if they are correct, but they follow what i've been taught, and i feel confident using this structure, so i thought it might help other like myself.
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    (Original post by twista999)
    i did that last year and got an E but that was probably because of the way i stated them lol
    I hate to be the breaker of news (oh the irony!) at this late stage, but I got the AQA: Essential Revision Guide. In this guide from the exam board, it states that Galtung and Ruge are from Norway 40 years ago and are not so applicable in the UK today.

    Instead, they suggest the following news values from Tony Harcup and D.O'Neill:

    1. The power elite - powerful people, organisations and institutions.
    2. Celebrity - people who are already famous.
    3. Entertainment - Sex, show bizz, human interest, drama, humour.
    4. Surprise - elements of surprise/contrast.
    5. Bad News - negative overtones.
    6. Good News - positive overtones.
    7. Magnitude - numbers involved or impacted.
    8. Relevance - relevant to audience.
    9. Follow-ups - stories already in the news.
    10. Agenda - stories that fit the company's own agenda.

    Alister Hetherington would be another theorist to look up with regards to news values.

    In terms of news, I can only suggest that you know news values, news sources, about news agendas. Also, for the past few years, there has been a coverage of four main topics which are: balance and bias, technological developments, news values or news sources. So I suggest you have a good knowledge about these.
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    I hope this question comes up:

    "Write nothing and you'll get an A. You may now leave"
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    Hahaahahahahaha.........
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    Its too late im gonna have to stick with gultang and ruge...
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    (Original post by sushAA)
    Its too late im gonna have to stick with gultang and ruge...
    lol... yeah exactly... i can't learn anymore stuff
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    Indeed, it is a very late stage. But the exam doesn't start until 1pmish, you've a few small hours to cram. Haha :P.

    Nah, It's up to you, all I can simply do is wish you the best of luck!

    So anyone got any ideas about audiences?
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    make sure u know bias in the news aswell, im sure that it might be one of the questions
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    (Original post by paperdollx)
    Indeed, it is a very late stage. But the exam doesn't start until 1pmish, you've a few small hours to cram. Haha :P.

    Nah, It's up to you, all I can simply do is wish you the best of luck!

    So anyone got any ideas about audiences?
    look up on:

    reception analysis
    uses and gratifications (blumler and katz)
    hypodermic syringe (sounds pretty stupid but easy to understand)
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    (Original post by twista999)
    look up on:

    reception analysis
    uses and gratifications (blumler and katz)
    hypodermic syringe (sounds pretty stupid but easy to understand)
    I know uses and gratifications and the hypodermic syringe but never heard of reception analysis. May go nosay about that now.

    So, good luck everyone! I'm sure we'll posting here again once it's all overr! Haha
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    Has anyone fully got thier head round 'maslow hierarchy of needs' because I am unsure of the self-actualisation bit (one of the five needs).
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    Self-actualisation is the final level of the hierarchy of needs.

    In order for it to be completed, all four other levels must be achieved first. Very rarely does this happen, as often we are too concerned with one of the other needs, such as love.

    This link should prove helpful - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs#Self-actualization

    Good luck
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    Thanks so much mate. Good luck to you and everyone else.
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    RIGHT i'm calling it a night

    GOOD LUCK TO YOU ALL!!!!

    xx
 
 
 

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