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    (Original post by k3marty)
    Hi what are the benefits of hyper polarisation
    So, hyper polarisation or refractory period ( same thing ) :
    - During the refractory period, ion channels are recovering and can't be opened
    - So the refractory period acts as a time delay between one action potential and the next. This makes sure that action potentials don't overlap but pass along as separate impulses
    - The refractory period makes sure action potentials are unidirectional ( they only travel in one direction )
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    http://filestore.aqa.org.uk/subjects...RB-GOA-SEQ.PDF
    Are the essay titles on here all of the themes that the essay could be on?
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    (Original post by TheRaspberry)
    Do we need to know about Cystic Fibrosis and delivering CFTR genes in relation to gene therapy?
    Nope, it's only worth mentioning for extra credit in the essay
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    Are DNA promoters and transcriptional factors the same thing? Thanks
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    (Original post by k3marty)
    Hi what are the benefits of hyper polarisation
    Means an action potential can't happen there again temporarily so that there's no backwards movement of the impulse
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    (Original post by sa97)
    Do we need to know about Cyclic AMP?
    Yes, you need to know about it in terms of the second messenger model but not for anything else.
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    (Original post by Bustamove)
    **** me... I'm actually going to fail this exam... ****!
    I focused way too much on C4... Had to save my maths grade first over my bio grade...

    I used to know everything for biology unit 5.. I haven't done it in like 2 and a half weeks because of all my other exams and now I forgotten it all...
    what should I do? My mind is completely blank for bio 5... should i just look at notes and just look at papers quickly?
    Lol dude you are always bare stressed out aha how did you fun unit 4 btw?
    Skim over the whole textbook/ or revision notes
    And then skim over past papers
    Personally for me I don't think pp are vital due to the fact majority of qs aren't really factual recall
    And it's unit 5, learning the ms ain't gonna help aha
    But apart from that, just stay calm xD


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    (Original post by Martin11)
    What's somatic and germ line therapy?
    It's the two types of gene therapy:
    Somatic - alters the alleles in body cells, so is temporary and offspring can still inherit the alleles that are faulty
    Germ line - alters alleles in gametes so is permanent d offspring won't inherit the alleles
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    (Original post by bg9876)
    Are DNA promoters and transcriptional factors the same thing? Thanks
    Yes
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    ATPase in the myosin head
    Dna replication
    Protein synthesis
    Secondary messenger model - adenylyl cylase, glycogen phosphorylase
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    (Original post by Ninainnarnia)
    Essentially, yes. The follicles (which are in the ovaries) release oestrogen and the corpus luteum (which is in the ovary/ ovaries) releases progesterone
    Thanks
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    (Original post by FrankiiWatson)
    It's the two types of gene therapy:
    Somatic - alters the alleles in body cells, so is temporary and offspring can still inherit the alleles that are faulty
    Germ line - alters alleles in gametes so is permanent d offspring won't inherit the alleles
    Tyvm, looks simple enough
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    (Original post by MrPolish)
    Yes
    Thanks
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    Can someone explain spatial and temporal summation please?
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    (Original post by aprocrastinator)
    are adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase the same thing?
    Yes they are. Adenylyl
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    (Original post by KateGeoghegan)
    I don't know if adenyl cyclase is a thing but if it is it will be the same as adenylate cyclase
    adenly cyclase is mentioned in the revision guide by Collins which is what the examiners use for reference so i think it should be ok? however in mark schemes adenylate cyclase is only mentioned
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    (Original post by Tplox)
    Lol dude you are always bare stressed out aha how did you fun unit 4 btw?
    Skim over the whole textbook/ or revision notes
    And then skim over past papers
    Personally for me I don't think pp are vital due to the fact majority of qs aren't really factual recall
    And it's unit 5, learning the ms ain't gonna help aha
    But apart from that, just stay calm xD


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    Ah! you're back

    Btw, I wanna say thank you for helping me out in bio 4.... I listened to your advice and I reckon I got a Strong A in unit 4... I made some stupid mistakes like the ratio and a few slip ups at question 7... but apart from that, I reckon I did pretty decent...

    I'm gonna need your advice again for bio unit 5 LOL
    So should I just revise my notes instead of papers? what about essays?
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    (Original post by C.R.E.A.M)
    apparently proteins wasthe essay on the stolen bio 5 paper so its unlikely to be that for ours as they will use a different one
    how did people find out what was on the stolen paper???
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    (Original post by shiney101)
    Can someone explain spatial and temporal summation please?
    Spatial- multiple presynaptic neurones release enough neurotransmitter to exceed the threshold value of the post synaptic membrane, so it can be depolarised due to the influx of na+
    (Also retinal convergence in rod cells)

    Temporal- a single presynaptic neurone rapidly releases lots of neurotransmitter to exceed the threshold value causing an action potential
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    (Original post by shiney101)
    Can someone explain spatial and temporal summation please?
    Spatial summation:
    - the effect of neurotransmitter released from many neurones is added together to reach the threshold in the postsynaptic neurone and trigger an action potential.

    Temporal summation:
    - Two or more nerve impulses arrive in quick succession from the same presynaptic neurone. This makes an action potential more likely because more neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft.
 
 
 
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