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    (Original post by LearningMath)
    Looks like chain-termination sequencing with radioactive ddNTPs...'extension' fits the blank. Sounds like you're looking for a specific word though lol?
    Nucleotide addition? :proud:

    EDIT: Annealing :awesome:
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    (Original post by Sakujo)
    Nucleotide addition? :proud:
    You mock me!

    It had a basis!(however sketchy) The denaturation, annealing and extension phases of PCR.

    Post up the answer if you find it! :p:
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    (Original post by LearningMath)
    See above in case you're interested.
    Thanks, i thought it was something like this, but cheers for the clarification.

    Hmm, i feel a bit bad that ive only done like, a few hours of revision today =<
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    Finally finished the syllabus today LOL
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    has anyone revised sequencing a genome using BACs?
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    gah got to the point where revision seems futile. pretty sure i have the hang of the majority of it, just a tad confused bout genetic engineering et al.
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    Hey

    Is anyone going to or has made exam questions (on one word document) for this upcoming exam.Let me know.

    Thankyou
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    (Original post by TX22)
    has anyone revised sequencing a genome using BACs?
    Yes, quite simple.

    1 - Only short parts of like 750 base pair lengths are used, map it using microsatellites (short runs of repeating bases)
    2- Mechanically shear the DNA into many pieces
    3- Insert into BACs and grow on a culture which produces a clonal library

    To sequence the genetic information in the BACs:
    1- Cells contain certain BACs are grown and cultured
    2- The DNA is extracted using restriction enzymes
    3- The fragments are sorted by size using electrophoresis
    4- An automated sequencer gives you the base sequence
    5- Computer programs compare and create overlapping regions which are then put together to give the final genome.
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    i think there are two types, one is to sequence a whole genome and ones to sequence the bases in a gene.
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    Got my coursework mark back today 29/40. Avoided a complete train-wreck by getting 10/10 on qualitative. How did everyone else do? Also any news back about that examquest thingy for bio papers?
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    for my ISA i got 32/40.
    this years ISAs were hard
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    Anyone tried the ExamQuest thing, I need them real bad. Thanks.
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    (Original post by uer23)
    Anyone tried the ExamQuest thing, I need them real bad. Thanks.
    :ditto:
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    here is the process for sequencing a Genome using BACs.

    A genome is cut into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes.
    the fragements are inserted in BACs( bacterial artificial chromosomes). Each DNA fragment is inserted into a different BAC. The BACs are inserted into a bacteria(vector). The bacteria divide to form a colony of cells containing a specific DNA fragments.
    DNA is extracted and cut using restrictions, this forms overlapping pieces of DNA. Each piece of DNA is sequenced in the right order using chain termination method. DNA fragments from BACs are sequenced in the right order using computer technology.
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    :ottid:

    (Original post by uer23)
    Anyone tried the ExamQuest thing, I need them real bad. Thanks.
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    (Original post by clever)
    for my ISA i got 32/40.
    this years ISAs were hard
    i agree, 33 over here
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    37!
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    Reasons for carrying out genetic engineering

    - to improve a feature of a recipient organism
    - to synthesise organisms to produce useful products

    Conjugation - genetic material may be exchanged.
    Speeds up the spread of antibiotic resistance
    Advantages - Genetic variation, survival in the presence of chemicals.

    Transformed bacteria must be identified as:
    - Some plasmids do not take up the gene
    - Some bacteria do not take up the plasmid
    Done by inserting antibiotic resistance gene or by using a gene for a protein that floureses in UV light


    Genetic markers

    1) Original plasmids carrying markers are chosen
    Marker - resistant genes to antibiotic chemicals
    2) Restriction enzymes cut the DNA and the insulin gene is inserted onto either antibiotic chemical
    3) Replica plating
    Bacteria is grown on an agar - forms colonies
    4) Some of the cells from the colonies are placed onto either agar (made by each of the antibiotic chemicals)
    5) Compare to see which bacteria growns on the antiobiotic chemicals - if the bacteria grows on the other antiobiotic chemical, not on the one in which the gene was inserted, then it must have taken up the plasmid with the insulin gene.
    6) Colonies are selected. Bacteria produces insulin on larger scale.


    Golden rice


    - Normal rice - staple food
    - Lacks beta-carotene - used to make Vit. A
    - beta - carotene is the precursor for Vit. A
    - Vit. A deficiency causes blindness
    - Rice plants do contain genes for the production of beta carotene but we eat the parts of the plant (endosperm) in which the gene for beta carotene is switched off.

    Engineering golden rice
    1) 2 genes from a dafodil and 1 gene from a bacterium are removed and inserted into Ti plasmid
    2) Plasmid is taken up by the gene Agrobacterium Tumifacien
    3) Introduced to rice embryos
    4) Gene is transcribed and translated to synthesise beta carotene in the endosperm to give a yellow/orange colour - Golden rice.

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    (Original post by clad in armour)
    i agree, 33 over here
    39!
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    (Original post by clever)
    for my ISA i got 32/40.
    this years ISAs were hard
    I got 32/40 as well
    *High five*

    I got a nice 87 out of 100 for my mock for bio. Im happy with that but it didnt include synoptic stuff. Also there was a very -strange- plant efficiency question worth 7 dodgy marks :P

    But hopefully bio will go my way this exam.
 
 
 
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