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RachelG_
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#1321
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#1321
(Original post by mulac1)
how much depth do we need to know about the uses of recombinant dna tech - theres about 4 pages in the textbook...

also what are the relative advantages of in vitro and in vivo gene cloning?
Advantages of in vivo cloning:
*Extremely rapid -
*Doesn't require living cells - no complex culturing techniques that require time and effort are needed

Advantages of in vitro cloning:
*Useful when introducing a gene to another organism -
* Almost no risk of contamination - gene is cut by the same restriction enzyme matches the same sticky ends of the opened up vector
*Very accurate
*Cuts out specific genes - more precise
*Produces transformed bacteria that can be used to produce large quantities of gene products - bacteria can produce proteins for commercial or medical use

Hope that helps, don't know exactly how much detail but I'd make notes on everything just to be on the safe side, they might ask questions where you just need brief examples but then there's always a risk of a huge question asking for lots of detail.
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neelam123h
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#1322
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#1322
Can anyone explain the secondary messenger model to me please?

Thanks in advance
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mulac1
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#1323
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#1323
yeh me too I find all the gene tech stuff really difficult to get my head around. Why an earth was my last post negged though??

thanks for the post on gene tech.
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starfish232
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#1324
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#1324
Could someone please explain the difference between a generator potential and action potential.

Thanks
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elja1905
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#1325
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#1325
I think a generator potential is the original voltage that is induced, where as an action potential is when it travels as an impulse down the neuron. I could be wrong :confused:
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Gnome :)
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#1326
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#1326
(Original post by starfish232)
Could someone please explain the difference between a generator potential and action potential.

Thanks
Basically a generator potential is the depolarisation of a receptor cell membrane as a result of a stimulus, whereas an action potential is the electrical change which happens in the membrane of an axon due to a stimulus
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lala12
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#1327
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#1327
(Original post by neelam123h)
Can anyone explain the secondary messenger model to me please?

Thanks in advance
The two hormones that we need to know about that work by the second messenger model are glucagon and adrenaline. I'll use glucagon as an example. Glucagon binds to specific receptors on liver cell membranes. This activates an enzyme inside the cell that catalyses the reaction that converts a molecule of ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP is the second messenger and it activates specific enzymes or enzyme pathways that do the stuff that the hormones are needed for, so in the case of glucagon, the conversion of glycogen to glucose.
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AdamStott64
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#1328
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#1328
(Original post by RachelG_)
Hey, can someone please explain to me the difference between multipotent and pluripotent cells? Thanks
I saw someone say to you that pluripotent cells are the ones that can become anything but this is wrong.
Totipotent cells are the cells which can become anything (embryonic or those in plants)

The difference between pluripotent and multipotent is that pluripotent are those which can differentiate into many different types of cells (for example nerve cells or blood cells). But cannot become ALL cells.
multipotent cells are those which are able to differentiate into numerous different 'sub types' of a cell for example they can become any blood cell (B lymphocyte, T lymphocyte, Red blood cell... ect)

Hope this helps
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YWArtist
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#1329
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#1329
Anyone up for some biol5 question time? Basically asking eachother questions...
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master y
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#1330
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#1330
Can anyone explain to me how insulin works?
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AdamStott64
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#1331
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#1331
(Original post by master y)
Can anyone explain to me how insulin works?
Erm, increasing permeability of cells to glucose by stimulating cell's release of vesicles containing glucose carrier proteins. This increases respiration rate which uses up blood glucose. Also activates enzymes which convert glucose to glycogen (secondary messenger) all these lower blood sugars


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F1's Finest
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#1332
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#1332
(Original post by YWArtist)
Anyone up for some biol5 question time? Basically asking eachother questions...
Go for it.

You first
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YWArtist
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#1333
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#1333
(Original post by James A)
Go for it.

You first
Sorted G,
Erm
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes? Describe both...
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F1's Finest
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#1334
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#1334
(Original post by YWArtist)
Sorted G,
Erm
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes? Describe both...
Briefly...

Type 1 is as a result of the body being unable to produce insulin.

Type 2 is a less serious form of Diabetes. The receptors on the surface of cells (glycoproteins) lose their responsiveness to to insulin, hence blood glucose concentration does not decrease.
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YWArtist
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#1335
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#1335
(Original post by James A)
Briefly...

Type 1 is as a result of the body being unable to produce insulin.

Type 2 is a less serious form of Diabetes. The receptors on the surface of cells (glycoproteins) lose their responsiveness to to insulin, hence blood glucose concentration does not decrease.
For type 1 also mention that it could be due to an autoimmune response in which the body attacks its own cells in this case the beta cells.
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F1's Finest
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#1336
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#1336
(Original post by YWArtist)
For type 1 also mention that it could be due to an autoimmune response in which the body attacks its own cells in this case the beta cells.
Yeah, beta cells in the islets of Langerhan.

Ill post a question here tomoz, im falling asleep in bed haha
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blueeyedgirl
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#1337
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#1337
(Original post by lala12)
The two hormones that we need to know about that work by the second messenger model are glucagon and adrenaline. I'll use glucagon as an example. Glucagon binds to specific receptors on liver cell membranes. This activates an enzyme inside the cell that catalyses the reaction that converts a molecule of ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP is the second messenger and it activates specific enzymes or enzyme pathways that do the stuff that the hormones are needed for, so in the case of glucagon, the conversion of glycogen to glucose.
Sorry to be annoying, but could explain how adrenalin works please? Sorry! I'm just not too sure about it
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Castiel'
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#1338
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#1338
(Original post by blueeyedgirl)
Sorry to be annoying, but could explain how adrenalin works please? Sorry! I'm just not too sure about it
Just answering for lala12,

Adrenaline (released from the adrenal glands) binds to receptors on liver cells which activates enzymes in the liver cells that convert glycogen to glucose. As a result, adrenaline will increase blood glucose concentration .
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nathaan5
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#1339
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#1339
Hi, can anyone explain the difference between primers and probes!? Thanks
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MLogan
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#1340
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#1340
(Original post by nathaan5)
Hi, can anyone explain the difference between primers and probes!? Thanks
Primers are used to start DNA synthesis and allow DNA polymerase to bind free nucleotides. Whereas DNA probe is used to locate a particular gene.

Hope this helps
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