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    Okie dokie -_- speak laters
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    Just going to post some brief notes on the brain, muscle and fight or flight response
    *Sorry for the poor english, was using notepad and just rushed it lol, but hope they are helpful, will post my behaviour notes tonight *

    The Brain
    Surrounded by 3 membranes called menges these help to secrete cerebro-spinal fluid which provides protection and cushioning of the brain, it also fills in the spaces inside the brain called ventricles.

    Capillaries in the brain are less leaky and lots of substances cannot pass through the walls of the capillaries.

    Cerebrum: Highly folded area at the front of the brain. It is made up of 2 cerebral hemispheres connected to each other by a tissure called the corpus callosum.
    Beneath the wrinkled hemispheres is the cerebral cortex this is involved in characterisitcs like - speech, emitions, logical thinking and decision making

    Cerebral cortex receives information from sensory organs like: eyes and ears

    Information received at sensory areas ---> association areas where they are processed and integrated with other information -----> motor areas where nerve impulses are generated and sent to effectors

    Left association area - responsible for understanding and use of language; BROCAS AREA small area in the brain to do with language (speech)
    WERNICKS AREAS is responsible for understanding language
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Cerebellum - has a folded surface but is smaller than the cerebrum, it is where movment and posture are controlled
    The brain coordinates: muscular activties to do with position, sensory activites like judging position of objects, tesning muscles so tools can be used properly, operation of antagonistic muscles to coordinate contraction and relaxation

    Holds half of all the nerve cells in the brain
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Medulla oblongata - forms a link between the brain and spinal cord, coordinates breathing, heartbeat and movements of the smooth muscle in the gut
    Controls non-skeletal muscle (involuntary)
    Regulatory centre from control of: heart rate (cardiac centre); breathing rate and depth (respiratory centre)
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The hypothalamus - regulates the autonomic nervous system and controls the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland, in the control of homeostatic processes such as temperature regulation and water content of body fluids

    Sesnory input received from temerpature receptors and osmoreceptors leads to an automatic response
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    Muscles
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Skeletal Muscles Structure
    Ok, A skeletal muscle cell, or muscle fibre, consists of many nuclei and is several centimeteres long.
    The stripes we see under a microscope appear different when contraction or relaxtion occurs.
    A sacromere the span of theZ lines, contraction causes there distance too shorten because the I and H lines are closer, A doesnt change.
    Cytoplasm contains parralel strcutures known as myofibrils, these are composed of thin actin which comes in two forms that wrap around each other, the first is G. f which is reinforced by typomyosin, and troponin which binds to each tropomyosin molecule, it has 3 polypeptides that bind to, actin, tropomyosin and calcium ions
    The second component of the myofibirils is the thick myosin filament, this consists of a tail and 2 protruding heads.
    The cell surface membrane is known as a sacrolemma and has turning known as T-Tubules, the endoplasmic reticulium is specialised as a sacroplasmic reticulum and ca2+ ions are pumped into it in normal relaxing conditions by using ATP
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Nerve Impulse at the sacrolemma, action potential arrives, causing vescicles of a ACh to be secreted, these in turn bind to

    the presynaptic membrane leading the depolarisation which runs down the T-Tubules, the depolariasation causes the SPR to

    secrete its ca ions, these bind to the protein receptors of the muscle causing it to contract
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    THE P-P-P-Power Stroke!
    In muscle contraction this is what happens
    myosin head attaches to a portion of actin and pulls it back so it overlaps the myosin more, this is the power stroke and causes atp to be hydrolysed into adp and pi, the cross bridge is broken and a new molecule of atp binds to the myosin head releasing energy provides energy for the head to separate from the actin
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Importance of Calcium ions
    binding site for the myosin head is covered by tropomyosin, myosin cannot bind to this, so when calcium ions are released due to depolarisation, these bind to the troponin, thus changing it and causing the tropmyosin to move away, leaving the actin uncovered so it can bind to it
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Importance of ATP in muscle contraction, it allows for the myosin head to "re set" and so relaxation can be achieved and the process can be done again when need be, this is achieved by the hydrolysis of atp

    Maintenance of ATP
    For continuous contraction ATP must be regenerated as quickly as it is used up
    1) Availibility of respiratory substrate and oxygen (aerobic respiration)
    2) Anerobic respiration in the sacroplasm, leds to production of lactic acid which is quick. This enters the blood and stimulates the increase blood supply to the muscles
    3) Transfering the phosphate group from creatine phosphate to ADP to produce ATP, by the action of an enzyme transferase. This allows for further contraction and the whole process is quick
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    The fight or flight response

    Where coordination of the endocrine and nervous system is needed in order to respond to the threat in the environment

    For example a dangerous situation in the external environment would lead to:
    NERVOUS
    - sensory neurones carry impulses from eceptors to the sensory areas in the brain to give information of the danger
    - nerve impulses are then passed onto association areas in the cerebrum
    - the nerve impulses then travel the sympathetic nerves of the autonomic nervous system to the sinoatril node, this increases both pulse and stroke rate
    - impulses from the brain to the SN to the adrenal glands stimulates secretion of adrenaline

    HORMONAL
    - the adrenaline is now in the blood stream
    - it causes stimulation of the heart (increased pulse and stroke rate)
    - increases blood pressure by constriction of the blood vessels to the skin and gut
    - increased airflow into the lungs
    - glycogen is broken down more in the liver
    - decreases sensory threshold and increased sensory awareness

    These responses provide an increased amount of oxygenated blood carrying glucose, thus allowing the muscles to work for the organism in terms of being able to cope with the situation or exiting for it
    Therefore a decision is now needed on how to respond:
    - Nerve impulses from the association areas in the frontal lobe of the cerebrum, pass to motor areas
    - Now motor neurones of the somatic nervous system carry impulses to muscles to produce chosen action
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    From the spec:
    describe one example of primary
    succession resulting in a climax community;


    In the mary jone's book two examples are given:Glaciers and sand dunes.. do we need to know both or just one ?
    I find glacier easy to understand.
    Yup, I think we'll still have to know the definitions of, pioneer species, climax community, prim and secondary succession.
    Also I think they'll expect us too know what the soil contains (inorganic and organic material), the characteristics of the pioneer species and the climax community, and the rest is linked to ecosystems I think, in terms of manipulating the flow of energy so succession doesnt proceed ( like maintaining grassland i think)

    I used the heinemann book for it, it uses sand dunes and bare rock as the examples

    Also carrying capacity, it is a lot easier to explain if you have a look at the population in growth curve that we learn about in the biotechnology section, the stationary phase is basically where the maximum population that can be sustained is obtained, because of density dependent factors etc.

    BTW there is a chance of simpsons diversity index popping up, will they give us the formula for it or do we have to know it off by heart?
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    (Original post by mathsclown)
    Yup, I think we'll still have to know the definitions of, pioneer species, climax community, prim and secondary succession.
    Also I think they'll expect us too know what the soil contains (inorganic and organic material), the characteristics of the pioneer species and the climax community, and the rest is linked to ecosystems I think, in terms of manipulating the flow of energy so succession doesnt proceed ( like maintaining grassland i think)

    I used the heinemann book for it, it uses sand dunes and bare rock as the examples

    Also carrying capacity, it is a lot easier to explain if you have a look at the population in growth curve that we learn about in the biotechnology section, the stationary phase is basically where the maximum population that can be sustained is obtained, because of density dependent factors etc.

    BTW there is a chance of simpsons diversity index popping up, will they give us the formula for it or do we have to know it off by heart?
    Meh probably not.The only thing which could pop-up is a tiny bit on how do we find out the energy content of a population for which we use sampling i.e belt transects and so on =]
    =P
    We also need to know that the succession relies on abiotic factors initially over the time when various seral stages have passed biotic factor comes in the picture i.e competition btw. the species. I havent slept at all just got off work... GRRR I want to sleep
    EDIT: Btw nice nots you got there.. All left for me is the last module.I really hate animal behavior.Would love to see notes on them :/
    Anyhow later folks!sheesh feels like it's Wednesday already LOL
    I think last time coppicing turned up ? :s OOO Let me write down nitrogen cycle



    Nitrogen on its own is a very stable atom (covalent triplet bond) hence is unreactive and of no good to living organisms.It's converted into ammonium by nitorgen fixing bacteria called Rhizobium.These bacteria live in free soil and mutual relationship with leguminous plants.In free soil their conversion capacity is limited.They are found in the root nodules of the plant.
    How do they get in there?
    When these plants germinate,they release a protein called lectin which binds onto the cell wall of the bacteria.Bacteria are attracted to the root and in doing so they stimulate the plant to form lumps so that they colonize it.The enzyme produced by these bacteria is nitrogenase which catalyzes nitrogen to ammonium.
    To do this the bacteria requires:
    1)Hydrogen ions- From reduced NADP
    2)ATP-From sucrose made by the plant in photo.synthesis
    3)Anaerobic condition

    Plants make the use of ammonium to build proteins.Once organisms assimilate them they are reformed into proteins.Decomposing bacteria break down part of proteins into ammino acid for their use and rest into Ammonia.Ammonia gets quickly converted into Nitrite and then Nitrate by nitrifying bacteria called Nitrosomonas and Nitrocbacter.These gain energy by the conversion.They require aerobic condition.Denitrifying bacteria do opposite of nitrogen fixation they convert nitrates back into Nitrogen.

    Affect of humans on Galapagos Biodiversity:
    Over-population: Population has doubled due to tourism hence more immigrants are trying their luck to make a living.As a result more rubbish is dumped,burned resulting in pollution.
    Over-fishingignificant no. of Immigrants choose fishing.In particular of sea cucumbers which has resulted in alarming decrease of their population.
    Tourism
    Introduction of Exotic animals into these segregated islands.Animals such as goats/cats/dogs which share same niche as the native animals.Resulting in intra-specific competition.

    I think that's about it. ZZZzzz
    =]
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    Yup those are good points there that werent in the heinemann book

    I'll have my behaviour notes up tonight taking a lil break from past papers lol, really can wait till the exam is over
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    (Original post by mathsclown)
    Yup those are good points there that werent in the heinemann book

    I'll have my behaviour notes up tonight taking a lil break from past papers lol, really can wait till the exam is over
    Yes please :P Good night this time for real!
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Yes please :P Good night this time for real!
    Good night!
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Yes please :P Good night this time for real!
    just fininishing notes on animal behaviour :puke: really not nice, havent done ANYTHING for ecology and still got half of biotech left
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    Animal behaviour Kinda rushed but covers the main points, syllabus does ask to just "describe the types of behaviour"

    Behaviour - responses of an organism to its environment which increase its chances of survival.

    By being able to detect changes in the environment an organism can carry out an appropriate response through the operation of effectors. Some stimulus can lead to an automatic response (like sensory inputs received from thermoreceptor) a reflex is an example of an automatic response.
    Complicated behaviour is aresult of genetically determined (fixed behaviour) and learned (therefore adapted) responses to stimuli
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Innate behaviour is an inherited response that is always performed in the same way in response to the same stimulus, it is behaviour that is genetically determined, therefore the environment has no impact on it.
    The advantages of Innate behaviour are: it does not have to be learned:
    - only a few neurones are required,
    - it is likely to be approriate to the individuals environment because the allels controlling it are likely to have been subject to natural section,
    - useful for organisms that have a short life span (no time to learn),
    - Provides immediate survival value to the young
    - it does not need to be learned

    Examples of genetically determined behaviour include: Escape Reflexes, Taxes and Kineses

    Escape Reflexes: Many invertebrates have an escape reflex and the function of this is to avoid predators. (earthworms withdraw underground in response to vibrations on the ground, because touching them causes their longitudual muscles to contract, thus shortening the body)

    Taxes: A directional movement in response to an external stimulus eg. when the stimulus is light then: positive phototaxis is towards the stimulus while negative photoaxis is away from the stimulus

    Kineses: An oritentation behaviour where the rate of movement increases when the organism is in unfavourable conditions, the behaviour is non-directional meaning that the response is in relation to the intensity of the stimulus. EG.
    woodlice move rapidly and turn frequently in dry conditions, when damper conditions are found by chance, they start to slow down or even stop, to stay in the optimal conditions
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    Learned Behaviour - animal responses that change or adapt with experience
    - Determined by the relationship between the genetic make up of the individual and environment influences (variation).
    - Can be taught to offspring but is not passed on,
    - altered by experience,
    - learned behaviour forms the basis of all intelligent and intellectual activity
    - benefit animals with a longer lifespan
    - benefit individuals that live with other members for a certain amount of time
    - parental care, involves learning from the parent

    Types of Learned Behaviour
    Habituation (simplest form of learning)
    A type of learning in where an animal learns to stop responding to a stimulus because it brings about no reward of punishment. It avoids wasting energy in making escape responses to non-harmful stimuli. It is very specific - it only
    applies for that particular stimulus.
    Examples - birds ignoring scare crows, humans sleeping at railways learn to ignore the noise stimuli of the train

    Imprinting
    A form of learning to recognise a parent or other complex stimulus, which is often limited to the sensitive period. Helps the young to learn skills that are possessed by the parent. Lasts well into adult life
    Example - Hatched orphan greylag goslings learn to recognise and follow the patterned boots of their surrogate human parent

    Classical Conditioning
    A form of adaptive learning in where the usual stimulus is modified. The animal learns to respond to a stimulus that isnt the usual stimulus. Conditional stimulus leads to a new reflex action known as a conditioned response.
    Example Pavlovs dogs

    Operant Conditioning
    A form of adaptive learning in where an organism learns to respond to a stimulus to receive a reward or to avoid an unpleasant experience.
    Example - Rat in a skinner box, pressed leaver to get food or to avoid an electric shock.

    Latent Learning
    Animals explore their surrondings to gain information that may not be of any value at that moment in time, but may be in the future. This behaviour is not directed towards a particular outcome.

    Insight Learning
    Regarded to as the highest form of learning
    An animal integrates memories of two or more earlier actions to produce a new response or to gain a reward. It is the ability of an animal to think and reason in order to solve problems or deal with situations in ways that do not resemble
    simple fixed, reflex responses or the need for trial and error.

    Adaptive value of the conditiong behaviours:
    - described as associative learning
    - animal learns to associate a stimulus or an action that meant nothing earlier, to acheieve a reward
    - this changes the behaviour so that reward (reinforcer) is acheived more often

    Hope that helps Most likely get asked questions that relate to natural selection, especially for innate behaviour, all animals show innate behvaiour.

    Will have social behavioru and dopamine up in a bit
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    Anyone have any notes on control of protein synthesis and body plan?
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    (Original post by SwordStream)
    Anyone have any notes on control of protein synthesis and body plan?
    Some on the top of page 4, but they are brief.
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    Primate Behaviour
    Definition of Social Behaviour: organisms of a particular species living together in groups with relatively defined roles for each member of the group

    - Primates are mammals
    - They include lemurs, apes and monkeys
    - Live in family groups where the young remain until they reach sexual maturity
    ^Advantage: Females give birth to only one (or very few) infants at a time. The maternal care and the protection of the group enhances the survival rate of the young

    - Organisation usually shows hierarchy where different individuals have different roles and status' this leads to social control and protection of the members
    - Primates have large brainswith a highly developed cerebral cortex, this is linked to social development and interaction
    ^Advantage: The final relatively large brain size slows the maturation of primates. The security if a group enhances the survival and learning of immature young

    It is thought that all social behaviours in primates derived from the extended dependecy period of the offspring
    ^Advantage: The young learn through the observation of and play with other members of the group, this learned behaviour is vital to the survival of the primates

    A group usually consists of one dominant male, adult females and their offspring
    The dominant male protects the other members, leads them in search of food and is the only male that mates with the mature females
    ^Advantage: Knowledge and protection of food sources is shared with the group

    Primates "groom" each other by picking parasites

    Care of the offspring is the role of the mother,
    ^Advantage: to this is that the infant remains in close contact with the mother in the first 5 months suckling
    At the age of 1 the infants will only venture as far as 5m away from their mothers, this is when they learn the social and neccessary skills needed to live independently. The other learning source comes between the ages of 3 to 6 this is when the toddlers learn from the silver back the art of protection and they learn through playing

    Communication; through displays and grunts to signal danger and to issue threats to predators and other groups
    ^Advantage: Greater ability to detect and deter opredators is acheived by groups of individuals working together

    Facial expressions are also important as they are used for recognition of other members of the group
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    I have yet to go over meiosis, everything to do with phenotype tables, plant, animal responses and muscles....
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    and behaviour ffs
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    (Original post by SwordStream)
    and behaviour ffs
    I just woke up :P hah. Another all nighter ?
    • Thread Starter
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    (Original post by mathsclown)
    Animal behaviour Kinda rushed but covers the main points, syllabus does ask to just "describe the types of behaviour"

    Behaviour - responses of an organism to its environment which increase its chances of survival.

    By being able to detect changes in the environment an organism can carry out an appropriate response through the operation of effectors. Some stimulus can lead to an automatic response (like sensory inputs received from thermoreceptor) a reflex is an example of an automatic response.
    Complicated behaviour is aresult of genetically determined (fixed behaviour) and learned (therefore adapted) responses to stimuli
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Innate behaviour is an inherited response that is always performed in the same way in response to the same stimulus, it is behaviour that is genetically determined, therefore the environment has no impact on it.
    The advantages of Innate behaviour are: it does not have to be learned:
    - only a few neurones are required,
    - it is likely to be approriate to the individuals environment because the allels controlling it are likely to have been subject to natural section,
    - useful for organisms that have a short life span (no time to learn),
    - Provides immediate survival value to the young
    - it does not need to be learned

    Examples of genetically determined behaviour include: Escape Reflexes, Taxes and Kineses

    Escape Reflexes: Many invertebrates have an escape reflex and the function of this is to avoid predators. (earthworms withdraw underground in response to vibrations on the ground, because touching them causes their longitudual muscles to contract, thus shortening the body)

    Taxes: A directional movement in response to an external stimulus eg. when the stimulus is light then: positive phototaxis is towards the stimulus while negative photoaxis is away from the stimulus

    Kineses: An oritentation behaviour where the rate of movement increases when the organism is in unfavourable conditions, the behaviour is non-directional meaning that the response is in relation to the intensity of the stimulus. EG.
    woodlice move rapidly and turn frequently in dry conditions, when damper conditions are found by chance, they start to slow down or even stop, to stay in the optimal conditions
    Ty. I will go through them in a bit.They better be what the spec. wants us to know.

    ;P
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    I dunno mate. I've been at it since 10 this morning. Might catch some zeds soon.
 
 
 
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