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    We're allowed to highlight the sources booklet aren't we? I think we are but I just thought I'd check before I turn up to the exam clutching my multipack of highlighters like a primary school child :P

    I think it's just the answer booklet we're not allowed to highlight, am I right? Just looking for moral support in my times of stress!!!
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    (Original post by njaysharpie)
    We're allowed to highlight the sources booklet aren't we? I think we are but I just thought I'd check before I turn up to the exam clutching my multipack of highlighters like a primary school child :P

    I think it's just the answer booklet we're not allowed to highlight, am I right? Just looking for moral support in my times of stress!!!
    Yeah we're allowed to highlight the sources booklet don't worry!
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    (Original post by njaysharpie)
    We're allowed to highlight the sources booklet aren't we? I think we are but I just thought I'd check before I turn up to the exam clutching my multipack of highlighters like a primary school child :P

    I think it's just the answer booklet we're not allowed to highlight, am I right? Just looking for moral support in my times of stress!!!
    yeah you can cos in the examination reports they often mention candidates were thorough and thoughful in their answer after 'annotating' the text.

    you not alone.....i am super stressed as well
    plus i have doubles tomorrow accounting unit 3 and english:eek:
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    (Original post by Jade10128)
    That's alright. No I agree fully with you, would just give some extra marks. Speech will come up - good luck
    Thanks, you too.
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    (Original post by njaysharpie)
    We're allowed to highlight the sources booklet aren't we? I think we are but I just thought I'd check before I turn up to the exam clutching my multipack of highlighters like a primary school child :P

    I think it's just the answer booklet we're not allowed to highlight, am I right? Just looking for moral support in my times of stress!!!
    Hi guys, new to this forum, I've got 3 highlighters, one for each AO, my teacher said it was a good idea so I'm taking them in with me tomorrow.

    Good Luck
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    (Original post by emily017)
    Praying for a spoken text for language acquisition tomorrow and a language change question that compares a text from the 18th century to a 20th century one... That would be ideal :')

    There is always a spoken text
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    I know that Language Acquisition question is before the Language change question, but is it possible to do them in reverse order? I really want to do my Language Change first because I'm better at it than Acquisition, and I don't want to feel demotivated when writing it if I struggled with Acquisition :/
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    (Original post by amelia95)
    There is always a spoken text

    Is that guaranteed? I've revised speaking and writing, that way at least one will come up.

    Does anyone know of theorists other than Kroll, Perera, Rothery and Barclay for writing?
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    Could anyone suggest a few pointers in what to say in the introductions on both language acquisition and change please? I tend to panic how to start it and waste time!
    Normally I thought its best to note the context of the transcript for acquisition and state what stage they're in? And then for change state the text(s) purpose, audience, genre and the time periods?

    Any suggestions would be great
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    (Original post by SJH128)
    Could anyone suggest a few pointers in what to say in the introductions on both language acquisition and change please? I tend to panic how to start it and waste time!
    Normally I thought its best to note the context of the transcript for acquisition and state what stage they're in? And then for change state the text(s) purpose, audience, genre and the time periods?

    Any suggestions would be great
    For Change I always start straight with TAP (type, audience, purpose) and continue on to register and vocabulary and how it reflects the audience mentioned, then lead into my individual paragraphs on each AO1 point

    But I think somewhere in the mark scheme it mentions that introductions should not be used and essays should go straight into AO1

    Edit: found what I was talking about
    "A developed succinct writing style- no introduction, precise analysis, short quotations and no repetition."
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    (Original post by SJH128)
    Could anyone suggest a few pointers in what to say in the introductions on both language acquisition and change please? I tend to panic how to start it and waste time!
    Normally I thought its best to note the context of the transcript for acquisition and state what stage they're in? And then for change state the text(s) purpose, audience, genre and the time periods?

    Any suggestions would be great
    Child Language Acquisition

    Data is here.


    Both Jack (4 years, 3 months) and Ruth (2 years, 9 months) according to the stages of children’s development are within the “post telegraphic stage”, which is normally reached around 2 years 6 months. The main characteristic of this stage is that the child can now combine three or more words in an utterance. To analyse the language used by the children and their caregivers, I will be looking at the grammar, child directed speech, gender and techniques used by the interactive book.

    Language Change

    (In note form)

    1.Introduction
    a. State the two pieces of text with their ages
    b. Talk briefly about what you’re going to discuss in each paragraph
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    (Original post by SJH128)
    Could anyone suggest a few pointers in what to say in the introductions on both language acquisition and change please? I tend to panic how to start it and waste time!
    Normally I thought its best to note the context of the transcript for acquisition and state what stage they're in? And then for change state the text(s) purpose, audience, genre and the time periods?

    Any suggestions would be great
    I just use the information in the question for example the age of either the text or the child then link in context, basically what you said, the purpose, what stage the child is in, who they're talking too whether its a teacher or a parent etc. Basically the A03 stuff. For language change you could mention whether the text was before or after some of the influencing factors, such as the dictionary and Robert Lowth's stuff.
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    (Original post by muyiwaolu)
    Child Language Acquisition

    Data is here.


    Both Jack (4 years, 3 months) and Ruth (2 years, 9 months) according to the stages of children’s development are within the “post telegraphic stage”, which is normally reached around 2 years 6 months. The main characteristic of this stage is that the child can now combine three or more words in an utterance. To analyse the language used by the children and their caregivers, I will be looking at the grammar, child directed speech, gender and techniques used by the interactive book.

    Language Change

    (In note form)

    1.Introduction
    a. State the two pieces of text with their ages
    b. Talk briefly about what you’re going to discuss in each paragraph
    You are describing the telegraphic stage not post telegraphic?

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    (Original post by SJH128)
    Could anyone suggest a few pointers in what to say in the introductions on both language acquisition and change please? I tend to panic how to start it and waste time!
    Normally I thought its best to note the context of the transcript for acquisition and state what stage they're in? And then for change state the text(s) purpose, audience, genre and the time periods?

    Any suggestions would be great
    I would suggest the following structure for CLA and Language change:

    Exam Structure – Child Language Acquisition
    1. Context: Power / Gender.

    The transcript is of a conversation between a mother and her daughter; it takes place in their own home during play time. The mother takes on the role of the educator and leads the discourse. E.g. “…” the mother controls content and attempts to place constraints on her daughter by “…”, she attempts to establish herself as the powerful participant. However, the child also attempts to impose her own power upon the discourse.

    i. May talk about face
    ii. Mother’s face threatening act and child’s response (threat to child’s independence)

    Look for other examples – why do they happen?

    Not just a battle to control the discourse there are elements of power asymmetry and the child shows an understanding of the rules of spoken discourse. Her mother makes initiation (e.g.) and the child makes a relevant response and the mother then gives feedback (e.g.) this is then followed by another interrogative which establishes the mother as the powerful participant and educator.

    2. Stages of development of the child / children: Give examples!
    - Does the child use sentences with more than one clause?
    - Do they use coordinating conjunctions or subordinating conjunction?
    - What verb forms do they use? Are they used correctly? E.g. “Gemma was putting the puzzle in the bin.”
    - What nouns do they use? Concrete (tangible) only. E.g. table / bottle. Or do they use abstract (non-tangible) nouns? E.g. love / hate / like.
    - Are the noun phrases simple or is there any use of modification? E.g. “I’ve got a big red lorry.”

    3. Functions of language:
    - What do the child / children achieve or trying to achieve though the use of their language?
    - Do they fulfill Halliday’s or Dore’s functions?
    - How does the language fulfill a function?
    - What does it tell us about their understanding of how language works?

    E.g. mother has a chocolate and the child says “that looks nice”. According to Halliday this would be classified as personal but it may also show an understanding of implicature, the child really means “I want some of that chocolate.”

    You are attempting to identify any use of pragmatics – this includes politeness. But you have to explain what it shows that the child understands. E.g. if I say please I may get a chocolate.

    4. CDS (Child Directed Speech) – the way in which parents use language to advance the child’s language capabilities. Does the adult use expansions and / or recasts?

    E.g. a child may say “daddy’s bike” and the adult say “yes, this is daddy’s bike” (points to the bike). She uses an affirmative to positively reinforce the child’s declarative; she also uses expansion to communicate the sentence in full to the child.

    E.g. the child is doing a puzzle and says “this here” and the adult responds “this piece goes here, correct, well done.” Expansion / positive reinforcement / positive face.

    Some things to look for:
    · Does the adult use concrete nouns? The adult will probably discuss concrete nouns because it is easier for a child to group the concepts; it is harder for a child to grasp the concept of abstract nouns.
    · Does the adult use simple sentences? Do they use any modifiers? Do they refer to the child directly or do they use pronouns? E.g. if an adult repeats the child’s name it is attempting to engage the child, it ensures that the child is aware that they are being engaged in the discourse.
    · Does the adult exaggerate their pauses to encourage turn taking?
    · Does the parent repeat or recast sentences to aid the child comprehension.

    5. Theorists – does the child imitate the adult? If not this would seem to suggest that Skinner’s theory does not explain how the child is learning language in this context. Despite the adults repetition of the phrase “small ball” the child responds “my ball”.





    Exam Structure – Language Change
    1. Context: why were they written (purpose)? Who were they written for (audience)?

    Gender Specific / neutral

    Implied reader – is it male? Do they assume to understand what the implied reader knows or wants (omniscient – all knowing)? E.g. “this is your dream car” – this also relates to power and synthetic personalisation.

    2. Expand on ideas of gender – what ideological perspective is established? E.g. are men and women equal; do women belong to specific groups? E.g. housewives / care givers.

    This is likely to relate to language and power.

    3. Do the pieces use technology? E.g. in the BBC Sport extract it relies upon new technology. Describe how this technology effects what is written. For example, the BBC text is instant reporting so it has informal register (give examples); it may have grammatical errors. There will also be changes in tenses – look at verb formations.
    Then contrast it with the more archaic text. What happens to the language because of the lack of technology? E.g. more complex sentences, more modifiers.

    4. Grammar – what grammatical features are used? Sentence structures e.g. modern texts may use more simple sentences or more variation / compound / complex / simple sentences.

    What types of sentences? E.g. declaratives, imperatives, interrogatives – Language and power.

    Does the text use model verb? Does one text use more of them than the other? If it is one text why are modal verbs used? What does it tell us about the relationship between the implied writer and implied reader? It may be that the implied writer is imposing an ideology upon the reader. E.g. “Ladies are, generally speaking, less developed than those of men”. Although the writer attempts to quality his declarative through the subordinate clause “generally speaking” the modal auxiliary verb expresses their certainty and reveals their ideological position. Here you can talk about the language and power and language and gender.
    Punctuation – uses of italics, capitalisation, full stops, or absence of punctuation. Do you see any marked changes in the use of punctuation?

    5. Lexical range – specialist / non-specialist terms. Do you see any evidence of new words, are there any archaic terms e.g. “side-car” a term describing an additional part that was added to a motorcycle but now rarely used as side-cars are obsolete. Examples of new / borrowed words – what may have brought them into the language? Technology.
    Eponyms / acronyms / proprietary names / Initialism / prefixes and suffixes / compound / blended words.

    Important: if you find examples of any of these could explain why they are there. You may find it helpful to relate these to the context.

    6. Graphalogical and typographical features – this of course is related to technology but will be able to show how the text producer has other methods to communicate. E.g. a picture is used to supplement (add) to the text.
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    Anyone getting in some last minute cramming?


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    (Original post by DMburu)
    Anyone getting in some last minute cramming?


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    Not me...never works for me lmao. I'm always unsure what to do a day before the exam - especially as we have all morning tomorrow. Today I just made notes on my CLA back up topic (reading) and went over some things I felt unsure with in language change. How much are you planning to write for each? I normally only manage about 3 pages for each :/

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    (Original post by Jade10128)
    You are describing the telegraphic stage not post telegraphic?

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    You beat me to the punch!
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    (Original post by Jade10128)
    Haha its Nelson (1973) that classified the first fifty words produced by children into five categories: objects, specific objects, actions/events etc. Objects were the most common as they related to things the children could touch.
    Hallidays taxonomys (1975) identified childrens language has a range of functions (7 in total)

    No I don't - sorry. The spec can be found here and may explain better: http://filestore.aqa.org.uk/subjects...05-W-SP-10.PDF
    Haha thought it was a bit of a coincidence, thank you!
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    Good luck everyone! Please be good to us AQA and give us nice texts!
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    Can't sleep, doing some last minute revision at 1:30 am! Lord help me.
 
 
 
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