Edexcel: From kaiser to fuhrer 1900-1945, his03/d exam friday 10th june 2016 Watch

Annie.humair
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What key factors do we focus on if asked about popularity and efficiency for the controversy?
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Annie.humair
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Hey guys,
I'm struggling with nazi consolidation of power. What factors do we talk about and what kinds of questions can we be asked
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eddso
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(Original post by Annie.humair)
Hey guys,
I'm struggling with nazi consolidation of power. What factors do we talk about and what kinds of questions can we be asked
I think the general question they will ask will be something like

"How far do you agree that [insert stated factor] was the main reason why th Nazis were able to consolidate their power by 1933?"

I think the themes/ factors you could discuss are three-fold;

- Use of legality
- Use of propaganda
- Use of terror/ violence

Hope that helps
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Annie.humair
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(Original post by eddso)
I think the general question they will ask will be something like

"How far do you agree that [insert stated factor] was the main reason why th Nazis were able to consolidate their power by 1933?"

I think the themes/ factors you could discuss are three-fold;

- Use of legality
- Use of propaganda
- Use of terror/ violence

Hope that helps
Thank you
Could you please explain the use of legality though
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eddso
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(Original post by Annie.humair)
Thank you
Could you please explain the use of legality though
Sure;

For example, the decree 'For the Protection of People and State' passed on 27 February after the Reichstage Fire is two main clauses. One which suspended indefinitely the liberties enshrined in the constitution such as freedom of speech. The other took power from the Lander and allowed the state government to
Intervene in local affairs, which marks a significant shift in power. It is this law which allowed the Nazis to torture and imprison thousands of political opponents.

Then, infamously the a Enabling Act which was passed in March 1933 with 444 votes to 95. This essentially allowed Hitler to be dictator for four years which then allowed a series of other laws to be passed such as all political parties being banned on 14th July 1933
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Annie.humair
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(Original post by eddso)
Sure;

For example, the decree 'For the Protection of People and State' passed on 27 February after the Reichstage Fire is two main clauses. One which suspended indefinitely the liberties enshrined in the constitution such as freedom of speech. The other took power from the Lander and allowed the state government to
Intervene in local affairs, which marks a significant shift in power. It is this law which allowed the Nazis to torture and imprison thousands of political opponents.

Then, infamously the a Enabling Act which was passed in March 1933 with 444 votes to 95. This essentially allowed Hitler to be dictator for four years which then allowed a series of other laws to be passed such as all political parties being banned on 14th July 1933
Thank you 😊
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stateofminds
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Any tips on how to read the sources. I have only been taught the popularity and efficiency controversy and find it quite difficult to get everything needed from the sources. Is there anything you guys recommend?

As for the structure for an efficiency would you go for:
- Strong Dictator
- Weak Dictator
- Working Towards the Fuhrer

And for popularity (obviously more dependent of the sources) but would this be a good general plan:
- Policies (popular as well as more unpopular)
- Propaganda
- Terror
- Opposition

Thanks in advance
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Annie.humair
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What kind of questions can be asked for the period 1939-45 wartime Germany.
My teacher barely went over this topic so I'm not too sure what I need to know
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stateofminds
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(Original post by Annie.humair)
What kind of questions can be asked for the period 1939-45 wartime Germany.
My teacher barely went over this topic so I'm not too sure what I need to know
I think the main topics are opposition, morale, final solution and the war economy
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Annie.humair
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(Original post by stateofminds)
I think the main topics are opposition, morale, final solution and the war economy
I'm just not too sure on what I would say about the final solution because I really think it's gonna come up this year.
Any ideas?
Thanks though
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grassntai
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(Original post by stateofminds)
I think the main topics are opposition, morale, final solution and the war economy
what about for unit 3 and 4?
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stateofminds
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(Original post by Annie.humair)
I'm just not too sure on what I would say about the final solution because I really think it's gonna come up this year.
Any ideas?
Thanks though
I did a rough plan on this the other day, I would have done the main paragraphs as...

Role of Hitler:
- So talk about the intentionalist argument and his world view as set out in Mein Kampf in 1925
- Hitlers Prophetic speech in 1939, declared 'annihilation of jewish race in Europe'
- Woking towards the Fuhrer, so policy was guided by his ideology even if chaotic state did play a role
- Himmler and Hitlers meeting on December 1941 - Hitler ordered that they be exterminated as partisans

Chaotic State
- Ever-growing extremism: working towards the Fuhrer resulted in cumulative radicalisation, so for example 1939: ghettos established for polish Jews, 1941: einsatzgruppen, 1943-1944: death camps
- Ever changing plans of what to do with the Jews, Madagascar plan in 1940 - planning to move 4 million Jews to Madagascar
- Einsazgruppen, controlled by the SS. Had wide ranging powers to eliminate opponents, massacre of the Jews followed - became organised and systematic as army moved eastwards, culminating in death camp system

Role of War
- German invasion of Poland brought in 3 million Jews - Jews from Poland were then forced into ghettos
- Invading of the USSR, einsatzgruppen carried out systematic murders - When the final solution was being planned mass killings were already taking place of undesirables in USSR
- increasing need to find a solution
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stateofminds
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(Original post by grassntai)
what about for unit 3 and 4?
So does this include Weimar and the rise of the Nazis?
Weimar:
- how far was it a success
- Stability, in early years particularly
- How 'golden' were the latter years

Nazis
- rise to power, particularly reasons for appointment
- consolidation of power up to the end of 1933
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grassntai
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(Original post by stateofminds)
So does this include Weimar and the rise of the Nazis?
Weimar:
- how far was it a success
- Stability, in early years particularly
- How 'golden' were the latter years

Nazis
- rise to power, particularly reasons for appointment
- consolidation of power up to the end of 1933
yep unit 3 is weimer republic and unit 4 is rise of nazis

are you sure those are the only topics they could ask? where did you find that list?
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Annie.humair
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(Original post by stateofminds)
I did a rough plan on this the other day, I would have done the main paragraphs as...

Role of Hitler:
- So talk about the intentionalist argument and his world view as set out in Mein Kampf in 1925
- Hitlers Prophetic speech in 1939, declared 'annihilation of jewish race in Europe'
- Woking towards the Fuhrer, so policy was guided by his ideology even if chaotic state did play a role
- Himmler and Hitlers meeting on December 1941 - Hitler ordered that they be exterminated as partisans

Chaotic State
- Ever-growing extremism: working towards the Fuhrer resulted in cumulative radicalisation, so for example 1939: ghettos established for polish Jews, 1941: einsatzgruppen, 1943-1944: death camps
- Ever changing plans of what to do with the Jews, Madagascar plan in 1940 - planning to move 4 million Jews to Madagascar
- Einsazgruppen, controlled by the SS. Had wide ranging powers to eliminate opponents, massacre of the Jews followed - became organised and systematic as army moved eastwards, culminating in death camp system

Role of War
- German invasion of Poland brought in 3 million Jews - Jews from Poland were then forced into ghettos
- Invading of the USSR, einsatzgruppen carried out systematic murders - When the final solution was being planned mass killings were already taking place of undesirables in USSR
- increasing need to find a solution
Thank you 😊
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stateofminds
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(Original post by grassntai)
yep unit 3 is weimer republic and unit 4 is rise of nazis

are you sure those are the only topics they could ask? where did you find that list?
Not 100% sure but fits with what is in the textbook

My teachers also created a general list of questions and these were the only topics that came up, but obviously they are not the examiners so I don't know.

There might be a question thats completely unpredictable but I think it will generally fit around these topics
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Mowerharvey
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Hi

I have a question regarding governments ruling by decree more and more in Weimar Germany in the early 1930s. If the governments lacked Reichstag support, how could they rule by decree if the decrees had to be voted for by the Reichstag?
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Annie.humair
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(Original post by stateofminds)
Not 100% sure but fits with what is in the textbook

My teachers also created a general list of questions and these were the only topics that came up, but obviously they are not the examiners so I don't know.

There might be a question thats completely unpredictable but I think it will generally fit around these topics
Would you mind putting up the list of questions please.
Thanks in advance 😊
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Annie.humair
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For the popularity controversy: evidence that the regime was popular
1 the plebiscites: series of these held in Germany over various issues. The result of these tend to show that people supported hitler's policies. Hitler regularly renewed his mandate to rule by holding referenda in which his policies would receive overwhelming support, thus giving the apperance that his regime was legitimate and popular. For example 99% voted yes in the support for the Union of Germany and Austria (Anschluss). Even though the Saarland had been placed under the League of Nations after ww1, the plebiscite run by the league had similar results to the rest of Germany run by the nazis

2 lack of opposition: no significant attempts to overthrow the regime. There were plots to remove hitter but these came from lone individuals or groups in the elite such as a plan to remove hitter by General Beck in 1938 but these plots can not be said to represent public opinion. Also, underground opposition didn't have widespread support during this era. Opposition groups tended to have only a small number of supporters. It was very difficult to form a significant opposition after the first year of the consolidation of power.
Legality of the seizure of power- enabling act destroyed trade unions, forced the KPD and SPD to go underground and in exile, brought in loyal Gauleiters to run the lander. Civil service, police, lawyers and press all under nazi control. But the seizure of power also involved a great deal of violence at grass root level directed towards the political left, Jews and other minority groups which the majority of the population accepted.

3 collaboration: historian Gellately argues the regime was a consensus dictatorship because it heavily relied on collaboration from ordinary people who were supportive of the nazi regime. Support of ordinary people suggests that people believed in nazi ideas and wanted to workforce the nazis or at least people tolerated e and their persecution of minority groups. Can also be said that repression was not as extensive as sometimes thought with only 4000 people, mostly a-socials, put in concentration camps in 1935. The use of concentration camps was widely known about and supported. Historians agree tart the nazis secured acceptance and conformity through a combination of terror and propaganda as said by Alan Bullock.

4 impact of propaganda: goebbels was in charge of Ministry of Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda. Newspapers were censored, editors received daily press briefings, content of newsreels was controlled, radio was used to propagate nazi messages, the annual nazi Nuremberg rally became a showcase for nazi power, education and nazi organisations like the hitter youth and nazi women's league were also used to promote nazi ideas.
But propaganda undermines the argument that it was a consensus dictatorship because if people were subject to propaganda they may have Beene manioulated into supporting the regime and cannot have said to have freely consented. Furthermore, impact of propaganda was most effective when built upon people's existing ideas and prejudices. The nazis didn't succeed in creating a nation unified around the Nazi Volksgemeinschaft.

5 popular policies: some policies were genuinely popular and some improved the lives of the German people. In areas of economy and foreign policy Nazi policy did appear to be successful
In foreign policy the army managed to peacefully and successfully remilitarise the Rhineland in 1936 and unify Germany in 1938 overturning two terms of treaty of Versailles
Economic policy- unemployment was reduced to under 1 million by 1935 and economic growth returned, although it started to do this before hitter came to power but he reaped the benefits

6 legacy of the Weimar Republic: people supported the nazis also because they thought Weimar democracy had failed. People's memories of the economic and political crisis in the final years of the Weimar Republic would be likely to increase support for a regime that seemed to bring greater stability to the lives of many Germans. People were looking for strong leadership and a belief in the national revival of the nation to a great power.

7 hitler myth: goebbels worked hard to create an image of hitter as a saviour of Germany. Hitler was shown in poses reminiscent of Jesus or as a modern day Teutonic knight. Hitler myth associated hitter with the popular aspects of the regime such as foreign policy and the 1936 Olympics. Presented hitler as a representative of the whole nation who stood above politics. Positive view that many people had of Hitler contributed to the level of support the Nazi regime enjoyed in 1930s

Hope this helps, sorry about any errors
Feel free to add anything or correct me
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Annie.humair
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Does anyone know what points we need to talk about for the efficiency part of the controversy. I don't remember anything at all and the book isn't helping either
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