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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    Thanks so much Jay
    I have a question, what exactly does Lattice mean I have read in many books but I don't know the exact meaning.
    I don't actually know what it means either tbh. I think of it like a type of structure really.

    Btw do you know the 4 diagrams for covalent, ionic and mettalic bonding? If not then you'll need to know that for sure.
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    (Original post by Jay431)
    I don't actually know what it means either tbh. I think of it like a type of structure really.

    Btw do you know the 4 diagrams for covalent, ionic and mettalic bonding? If not then you'll need to know that for sure.
    I only remember the covalent network structure, I remember there was a question about it in the 2015 past paper so Im going to need to have a look. Thanks Jay
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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    I only remember the covalent network structure, I remember there was a question about it in the 2015 past paper so Im going to need to have a look. Thanks Jay
    You're welcome
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    (Original post by SocialStudiesETC)
    Attachment 532547

    Here's the one from the 2014 paper, it's a tough one at first glance but I've left it out to discuss it. I'll upload another one once we've agreed to move on😋
    I think you should talk about the acidity of the lake as sulfur dioide and sulfer trioide makes water become more acidic when is dissolves in water becasue they are non-metal. This is why it makes the aluminium react with it becasue if you look at the electrochemical series aluminium is above hydrogen therefore it will react with acid that's why the holes appear. The hydrogen chloride also makes it more acidic as well. Usually with these questions they loom for as many points as possible but for one question you can have a max of two points but always llook for more just in case
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    (Original post by studyranger)
    I think you should talk about the acidity of the lake as sulfur dioide and sulfer trioide makes water become more acidic when is dissolves in water becasue they are non-metal. This is why it makes the aluminium react with it becasue if you look at the electrochemical series aluminium is above hydrogen therefore it will react with acid that's why the holes appear. The hydrogen chloride also makes it more acidic as well. Usually with these questions they loom for as many points as possible but for one question you can have a max of two points but always llook for more just in case
    Does it make the water more acidic because

    Non Metal Oxide + Water --------> Acid ?

    And I don't understand why hydrogen chloride will make it for acidic though... :O
    Can you explain in to me ?
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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    Does it make the water more acidic because

    Non Metal Oxide + Water --------> Acid ?

    And I don't understand why hydrogen chloride will make it for acidic though... :O
    Can you explain in to me ?
    Sure, an acid contains more H plus ions than OH ions- fact you need to know. When sulfur dioxide a non-metal oxide dissolves in water it producs an acid. It's metal oxides taht di the opposite. I the way I remember it is by using the example of acid rain which sort of explains it.
    When we burn crude oil which contains sulfur, the reaction when we burn is a combustion reaction this just means you are using oxygen to burn it. The sulfur =+ oxygen give you sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. This is a non-metal oxide that dissovles into rain and gives you acidic rain.
    I am not sure if that helps
    Hydrogen chloride dissovles in water to produce hydrochloric acid
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    (Original post by studyranger)
    Sure, an acid contains more H plus ions than OH ions- fact you need to know. When sulfur dioxide a non-metal oxide dissolves in water it producs an acid. It's metal oxides taht di the opposite. I the way I remember it is by using the example of acid rain which sort of explains it.
    When we burn crude oil which contains sulfur, the reaction when we burn is a combustion reaction this just means you are using oxygen to burn it. The sulfur =+ oxygen give you sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. This is a non-metal oxide that dissovles into rain and gives you acidic rain.
    I am not sure if that helps
    Hydrogen chloride dissovles in water to produce hydrochloric acid
    I understand it a lot more now,

    Thanks StudyRanger
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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    I understand it a lot more now,

    Thanks StudyRanger
    No problem

    I could see you guys were talking about a lattice It's just important to know that a Lattice is just like a tight cube like the ionic lattice or just tightly held charged ions in that case
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    Do you have to remember the ways that metals are extracted and what ,method is used for a different metal depending on their reactivity ?

    Oh and I have completely forgotten what a reducing agent is. Cam someone please explain it to me ?
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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    Do you have to remember the ways that metals are extracted and what ,method is used for a different metal depending on their reactivity ?

    Oh and I have completely forgotten what a reducing agent is. Cam someone please explain it to me ?
    Aluminium and above - are extracted by electrolysis of the their ore
    Zinc to copper - are extracted by heat with carbon
    Below copper - are extracted by heat with oxide alone

    Reducing agents gives out electrons
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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    Do you have to remember the ways that metals are extracted and what ,method is used for a different metal depending on their reactivity ?

    Oh and I have completely forgotten what a reducing agent is. Cam someone please explain it to me ?
    Yes you need to know the ways metals are extracted. There's only 3 methods you need to know:

    1) Electrolysis
    2) Heating with carbon
    3) Just heating.

    Yes it depends on the reactivity of the metal. From zinc above (in the E.C.S) everything requires electrolysis.
    From copper to iron you heat with carbon
    Below copper you just heat it.

    The reducing agent is a little tricky to explain
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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    Do you have to remember the ways that metals are extracted and what ,method is used for a different metal depending on their reactivity ?

    Oh and I have completely forgotten what a reducing agent is. Cam someone please explain it to me ?
    So if you look at the electrochemical series at the very back of your data booklet The metals at the very top are the most reactive and the ones at the botttom are the least reactive.

    From mercury below they are so unreactive you need heat and heat only to extract them.

    Anything from mercury to Aluminium not including Alunimium need heat and the use of carboon to etract them because they are more reactive.

    Aluminium upwards requires electric power and heat to extract it as they are very reactive.
    A reducing agent I can't remember but when metals are being extracted with carbon or carbon monoxide the carbon allows the metal to gain electrons making the carbon a reducing agent so oxidising i think.
    Hope this helped
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    (Original post by Lewis H01)
    Aluminium and above - are extracted by electrolysis of the their ore
    Zinc to copper - are extracted by heat with carbon
    Below copper - are extracted by heat with oxide alone

    Reducing agents gives out electrons
    (Original post by Jay431)
    Yes you need to know the ways metals are extracted. There's only 3 methods you need to know:

    1) Electrolysis
    2) Heating with carbon
    3) Just heating.

    Yes it depends on the reactivity of the metal. From zinc above (in the E.C.S) everything requires electrolysis.
    From copper to iron you heat with carbon
    Below copper you just heat it.

    The reducing agent is a little tricky to explain
    (Original post by studyranger)
    So if you look at the electrochemical series at the very back of your data booklet The metals at the very top are the most reactive and the ones at the botttom are the least reactive.

    From mercury below they are so unreactive you need heat and heat only to extract them.

    Anything from mercury to Aluminium not including Alunimium need heat and the use of carboon to etract them because they are more reactive.

    Aluminium upwards requires electric power and heat to extract it as they are very reactive.
    A reducing agent I can't remember but when metals are being extracted with carbon or carbon monoxide the carbon allows the metal to gain electrons making the carbon a reducing agent so oxidising i think.
    Hope this helped
    Thank you guys so so MUCH ! Ill be able to remember that !
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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    Thank you guys so so MUCH ! Ill be able to remember that !
    Haha sorry I didn't see the other two that posted before me
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    Im not sure if this matter but my book says different metal to what you are saying, just 1 or 2 off though.

    1. Electrolysis - Metals above zinc
    2. Heat using C/ CO - Metals above Mercury but below Aluminium
    3. Heat only - Metals bellow copper

    Are some metals allowed to have more than one method of being extracted ? Because if you look at what I have wrote above and then look at your ECS then you will notice some Metals are in 2 of them.
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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    Im not sure if this matter but my book says different metal to what you are saying, just 1 or 2 off though.

    1. Electrolysis - Metals above zinc
    2. Heat using C/ CO - Metals above Mercury but below Aluminium
    3. Heat only - Metals bellow copper

    Are some metals allowed to have more than one method of being extracted ? Because if you look at what I have wrote above and then look at your ECS then you will notice some Metals are in 2 of them.
    My books says:
    Electrolysis Above Zinc
    Heat using carbon, Copper to Iron
    Heat only Below copper

    I'm a bit unsure now
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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    Im not sure if this matter but my book says different metal to what you are saying, just 1 or 2 off though.

    1. Electrolysis - Metals above zinc
    2. Heat using C/ CO - Metals above Mercury but below Aluminium
    3. Heat only - Metals bellow copper

    Are some metals allowed to have more than one method of being extracted ? Because if you look at what I have wrote above and then look at your ECS then you will notice some Metals are in 2 of them.
    I am sure it's metals above Aluminium but just to be sure ask your teacher the second one right I think just worded in another way and that's the same with the 3rd one but ask your teacher about the first one or go on bitesize
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    Alright, Thanks for the help... sorry for all the questions, this is the section of the course that I find difficult and confusing
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    (Original post by Ethan100)
    Alright, Thanks for the help... sorry for all the questions, this is the section of the course that I find difficult and confusing
    It's ok out of the whole course I found this one the least interesting but the rest of it pure gold haha (sorry for the bad jk)
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    Can someone explain what reducing agent is
 
 
 
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