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    Finally, we'll do Kevlar

    Reactants: Benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid AND Benzene-1,4-diamine

    Below:
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    Reaction between Benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and Benzene-1,4-diamine to form KEVLAR.

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    Polymers – Biodegradability and disposal of polymers – Topic 9.

    Polyesters and polyamides are biodegradable bc they can be broken down by hydrolysis and therefore by enzymes.

    Advantages and disadvantages of landfill as a method of polymer disposal:

    Advantages:

    - Acceptable for biodegradable polymers.

    - Generation of methane which can be used as a fuel


    Disadvantages:

    - Suitable sites are being used up in UK.

    - Sites are visual pollution.

    - Methane is a greenhouse gas.
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    Advantages and disadvantages of Incineration as a method of polymer disposal:

    Advantages:

    - Generates heat energy

    - Reduces volume of waste.


    Disadvantages:

    - Toxic gases are produced which need to be dealt with and that's expensive.
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    Advantages and disadvantages of recycling polymers.

    Advantages:

    -Less oil (raw material) used for production.

    - Less energy consume.

    - Reduced emissions of e.g. CO2 and SO2.



    Disadvantages:

    - Kerbside collection of domestic plastic is costly.

    - Sorting and separation is difficult and labour intensive.
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    Organic synthesis + analysis – applications – Topic 10.

    be able to deduce how to synthesise organic compounds using the reactions in this specification be able to identify organic functional groups using the reactions in the specification.
    I don't think I can make any notes on this bc they're practically telling me to do past papers. :rofl:

    So, I'll skip to the next topic. :'3
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    Structure determination – Topic 11.

    Carbon-13 NMR

    If an atom has an odd mass number, it can possess a property called spin.

    The structure reference used in NMR spectroscopy is Tetramethylsilane - (CH3)4Si

    Each peak represents a different Carbon environment.


    ~

    Proton NMR

    Each peak represents a different hydrogen environment.

    Why use TMS?

    - It is Inert.
    - Non-toxic.
    - Volatile

    Solvents.

    - CDCl3 is used bc it will not interfere with the results.(proton free)

    - CCl4
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    Structure determination - Chromatography – Topic 11.

    Chromatography - A technique for separating the components of a mixture on the basis of the differences in affinities for a stationary phase(retention) and for a moving phase.


    How can column chromatography be used to separate a mixture?

    - Stationary phase: finely divided alumina in a column·

    - Moving phase: usually an organic solvent(eluent) chosen to maximise separation·

    - Mixture to be separated is washed through with the solvent.·

    - Separation of the mixture depends on the balance between the solubility of a component in the solvent (moving phase) and its retention in the stationary phase.



    How can gas-liquid chromatography can be used to separate mixtures of volatile liquids?

    - Stationary phase: inert powder coated with non-volatile liquid packed into long narrow tube.

    - Moving phase: carrier gas such as helium or nitrogen(eluent).

    - Mixture to be separated is carried through with the carrier gas.·

    - Separation of the mixture depends on the:

    Solubility of a component in the non-volatile liquid (retention in the stationary phase), the flow rate of the carrier gas, the operating temperature and the length of the column.

    - Separated components can be fed in to a mass spectrometer as they emerge for identification.


    I've missed out mass spectrometry + Infrared bc that's from AS and basically just a repeat of unit 1 + 2 stuff + I cba.
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    It's 4am but I've finally finisheddddd! :woo:
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    (Original post by Anon_98)
    It's 4am but I've finally finisheddddd! :woo:
    ah congrats, thank you so much for this and good luck for tomorrow/today!!
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    (Original post by Louisss)
    ah congrats, thank you so much for this and good luck for tomorrow/today!!
    Thanks aha, didn't think I'd ever get it done at one point + you're more than welcome. - Glad you found it helpful + I wish you the best too! <3
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    (Original post by Hydeman)
    Good luck, Anon! :jive:
    Thank you. <3

    (Original post by EnterNamehereplz)
    No its unit 4 I was looking silently at Chem 2 and Bio 2 goodluck on this. I am planning on doing this too. How many hours to finish off the whole course you reckon?
    Thanks + I'm sorry for being a little bit grouchy earlier. Hope you managed to get all your notes done, good luck for tomorrow too. <3

    (Original post by zahraaj1)
    good luck and thanks for these!
    You're welcome. I'm glad you found them useful - good luck to you too!

    (Original post by AngryRedhead)
    This thread is awesome but don't forget to get some sleep
    Thanks a lot + I won't. :'3

    (Original post by TheOtherSide.)
    In case I haven't said this yet GOOD LUCK ON YOUR EXAM!! :jumphug: :hugs: :lovehug:

    And listen to AngryRedhead? :puppyeyes:
    Thank you! <3
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    Matt Johnson It's a bit late, but you asked about a Chem 4 thread a few days ago so I thought I'd let you know that I've finished it.
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    Great stuff! Good luck for today

    Hopefully we can get a CHEM5 thread too?
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    (Original post by study2016)
    Great stuff! Good luck for today

    Hopefully we can get a CHEM5 thread too?
    Thank you v much + good luck to you too. <3

    Hopefully, yes. I'll probably start it after my last exam of this week, but not sure.
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    Good luck thank you so much for the helpful threads!! Xx
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    Genius anon - thanks man!
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    (Original post by haj101)
    Good luck thank you so much for the helpful threads!! Xx
    (Original post by Hadigy)
    Genius anon - thanks man!
    Ah, you're welcome. :blush:

    Wish you all the best for the exam.
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    (Original post by Anon_98)
    Ah, you're welcome. :blush:

    Wish you all the best for the exam.
    Good luck everyone you got this Anon
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    What did everyone get for the last question the structure?
 
 
 
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