OFFICIAL OCR A2 Biology - F214 Thread Watch

CreativeBass
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#1461
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#1461
(Original post by D_102)
What nitrogenous substances appear in urine? i know urea....what else....?
Tbh i don't think we need to know.
However, for your own benefit, uric acid is one.
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I Have No Imagination
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#1462
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#1462
(Original post by chuck111)
no ive uploaded all six topics

Hey did you upload revision cards for photosynthesis, I can't find it. :'(
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chuck111
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#1463
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#1463
(Original post by Inzamam99)
:zomg: Where?? Please tell me :bawling: :bawling: :bawling:

(Original post by Maria-16*)
can you link me the the respiration ones please?
(Original post by CreativeBass)
could you link me to the respiration ones please. Thank you
Here they are
again LOLz
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chuck111
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#1464
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#1464
(Original post by Inzamam99)
:zomg: Where?? Please tell me :bawling: :bawling: :bawling:

(Original post by Maria-16*)
can you link me the the respiration ones please?
(Original post by CreativeBass)
could you link me to the respiration ones please. Thank you
And nerves
Attached files
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ibysaiyan
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#1465
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#1465
outline the Krebs cycle, with reference to the formation of citrate from acetate and oxaloacetate and the reconversion of citrate to oxaloacetate (names of intermediate compounds are not required)
Well since i know them, i gotta bad urge to name them: Here
Oxaloacetate => Citrate => Iso-citrate =>5 Alpha-Ketuglutrate => Succinyl CoA =>Succinate => Fumurate => Malate => Oxaloacetate . ( and no we dont need to know that, i hope it turns up cuz i am gonna fill in these names for sure)
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D_102
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#1466
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#1466
In how much detail should I know dialysis...?
I know the two....Heamodialysis and Peritoneal (sp?)
Is there any specific things i should know?
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Tinkerbelle ♥
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#1467
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#1467
(Original post by chuck111)
Here they are
again LOLz

Remind me to rep you tomorrow
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CreativeBass
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#1468
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#1468
(Original post by chuck111)
Here they are
again LOLz

Thank you. I'll rep soon
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ibysaiyan
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#1469
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#1469
(Original post by D_102)
In how much detail should I know dialysis...?
I know the two....Heamodialysis and Peritoneal (sp?)
Is there any specific things i should know?
Not too much maybe a question might rise which is more accessible less tedious , and that in perotonial dialyser you have the blood exchnaging its content with the peritoneum membrane in the abdomen (not Perineurium which is related to nerves). Fluid is introduced through a permanent tube in the abdomen and flushed out either every night while the patient sleeps (automatic peritoneal dialysis) or via regular exchanges throughout the day (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis).

and then you can go on the advantage/disadvantages of both, where uses a tube through which exchange takes place.
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I Have No Imagination
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#1470
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#1470
Who else is doing an all nighter tonight? :sigh:
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ibysaiyan
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#1471
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#1471
Ok my turn xD.
What are limiting factors and how do they affect rate of photosynthese, and why does rubisco catalyzes reaction of Oxygen with RUbp instead of CO2.
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CreativeBass
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#1472
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#1472
(Original post by D_102)
In how much detail should I know dialysis...?
I know the two....Heamodialysis and Peritoneal (sp?)
Is there any specific things i should know?
Since its new to the spec they may want to add it in.
Umm.. just know briefly what happens in each one.

Heamodialysis: Vein passed into a machine with an artifical dialysis membrane. Has the correct conc of diff substances. Exchanges with the blood. Heparin added to avoid blood clotting.

Peritoneal: Tube implanted in the abdomen. Dialysis solution poured here to exchange with blood. Drained out.

Monitored diet for both methods.

Learn the (dis)adv. of kidney transplant too.
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ibysaiyan
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#1473
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#1473
(Original post by I Have No Imagination)
Who else is doing an all nighter tonight? :sigh:
Well.. since i just woke up, I think i will stick around till 12 ish.
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ibysaiyan
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#1474
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#1474
(Original post by CreativeBass)
Since its new to the spec they may want to add it in.
Umm.. just know briefly what happens in each one.

Heamodialysis: Vein passed into a machine with an artifical dialysis membrane. Has the correct conc of diff substances. Exchanges with the blood. Heparin added to avoid blood clotting.

Peritoneal: Tube implanted in the abdomen. Dialysis solution poured here to exchange with blood. Drained out.

Monitored diet for both methods.

Learn the (dis)adv. of kidney transplant too.
Thanks, didnt know about heparin.
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Summerdays
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#1475
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#1475
Co enzyme a 2 carbons, I think.

When CO2 absorption decreases the levels of RUBP rises and the levels of Glycerate-3-phosphate decreases because there are less CO2 available to convert RUBP into GP. The levels of triose phosphate also decrease.

We can test for anabolic steroids by evaporating urine and inserting it into a column with a liquid solvent. Different steroids travel through the column to the detector at different times. The time taken for the gas to travel from the column inlet to the detector is measured (this is called the retention time). This time is compared with a database of different steroids and the steroid with the matching time confirms which steroid is present in the urine. This technique is called gas chromatography.

Inhibitory synapses is when the pre sypnaptic knob releases inhibitory neuroreceptors (via exocytosis) to the synaptic cleft. The inhibitor binds onto the receptor site for acetylcholine on the post synaptic membrane, preventing acetylecholine from binding onto the receptors which prevents the sodium ion channels on the postsynaptic membrane from opening. This means that an action potential isn't generated on the postsynaptic membrane. Acetylcholinesterase may not be able to hydrolyse the receptor. The inhibitor could cause paralyses, as a consequence.
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D_102
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#1476
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#1476
How is an action potential generated?....rather what causes it to occur, I understand the concept of a change in potential difference etc....but what stats it all ?
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conorf199
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#1477
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#1477
(Original post by D_102)
How is an action potential generated?....rather what causes it to occur, I understand the concept of a change in potential difference etc....but what stats it all ?
I think thats more related to the stimuli having enough energy, so that when it is converted into electrical energy by the receptor it depolarises the axon enough to reach the threshold to fire (-40mV)
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CreativeBass
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#1478
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#1478
(Original post by ibysaiyan)
Ok my turn xD.
What are limiting factors and how do they affect rate of photosynthese, and why does rubisco catalyzes reaction of Oxygen with RUbp instead of CO2.
The limiting factors are; Carbon dioxide concentration, light intensity and temperature.
CO2 decrease means RuBP accumulates as it does not bind to co2, GP decreases as no 6carbon compound is made, hence no GP or TP either.
Light intensity decrease means light dependent reaction decreases, no photolysis of water, less ATP and reduced NADP is made. Light independent also affected, RuBP decreases because it binds to CO2, GP increases because 6 carbon compound broken down to GP. TP decreases because no ATP and reduced NADP to convert GP into TP. Later, RuBP decreases too because not regenerated from TP.
Temperature: Increasing causes rate to increase until 25degrees. Water is lost by transpiration, stomatal pore may close, Co2 cannot enter. Photorespiration exceeds photosynthesis due to oxygenase activity of rubisco. Enzymes may be denatured.
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conorf199
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#1479
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#1479
(Original post by I Have No Imagination)
Who else is doing an all nighter tonight? :sigh:
il be up late but pulling an all nighter probably isnt the best idea :p:
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chuck111
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#1480
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#1480
(Original post by ibysaiyan)
Ok my turn xD.
What are limiting factors and how do they affect rate of photosynthese, and why does rubisco catalyzes reaction of Oxygen with RUbp instead of CO2.
sumthing along the lines of, a limiting factor is a factor which is unfavourable out of many factors which influence the rate of reaction (such as light intensity,temperature and Co2 concentration)

this is when the temperature increases too much and the rubisco stats acting as a oxidase, this results in co2 and o2 competing for the rubisco active sites.
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