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    (Original post by DeepDarkSecrets)
    Ahh seems like our sociology teachers aren't that great I've also been self-teaching
    I really hate childhood, how likely is it that childhood may come up?? :'(
    Childhood came up in June 2012 I belve so either could be a 2,4 or 6 mark qs
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    (Original post by 3mmz)
    Wow thanks. What are social policies that exist in the uk. Can you give me a an example....
    e..g Social policies to one partner but nowadays you have re-marriages and that have indirect effects on the family i.e. leading on to variety of families
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    (Original post by Enn21)
    Omg thank you, at least I now know what exactly to revise for social policy. Thankss again!
    Thanks got 20/24 and 24/24 for demography essay hope one of them comes up ill be sorted!
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    (Original post by ikz94)
    e..g Social policies to one partner but nowadays you have re-marriages and that have indirect effects on the family i.e. leading on to variety of families
    still utterly confused
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    Ok a social policy is law or action introduced by the government ok the unit look at how thses laws affect family life Directly or indirectly.

    In the UK policies comes about through the government right? so therees polkicies u can emnntion then taking thses policies you question how they may affcet family life wethyer it has a direct effect or indirect etc.
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    (Original post by ikz94)
    Ok a social policy is law or action introduced by the government ok the unit look at how thses laws affect family life Directly or indirectly.

    In the UK policies comes about through the government right? so therees polkicies u can emnntion then taking thses policies you question how they may affcet family life wethyer it has a direct effect or indirect etc.
    oh okay thanks....

    can you give me some examples of social policies that actually exist...that i could use in the exam?
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    Hiiii, can anyone explain how to write a good introduction and conclusion? Or any other essay tips? thanks!
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    (Original post by PR1234)
    Hiiii, can anyone explain how to write a good introduction and conclusion? Or any other essay tips? thanks!
    Intro's you define key terms, give any stats,trends,reasons.
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    could anyone simply detail the main points of a potential policy essay?
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    Can someone share some notes or give me a recommended site where I can get notes about functionalism, Marxism and feminism
    And demographics
    P.s do you need to know statistics or just the general correlation?
    Plus any exam tips etc?
    Thanks in advance
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    Demography means…

    • The study of populations. It includes the study of births, deaths and migration that can lead to changes in population size and structure


    Potential exam questions could be:


    • Examine the trends in births and deaths in the UK since 1900


    We are going to look at FACTS and REASONS for the changes; these can also come up in 2, 4, and 6 mark questions
    Births- The Facts

    Births are measured in three ways:
    1/: Actual numbers:

    • This is the actual number of live births in a population over a given time period.


    Overall there has been a decline in the actual number.
    1901 = 1.1m
    2005 = 723,000

    2/: Birth Rate:

    • This is the number of live births per thousand of the population per year.
    • E.g. if the birth rate was 15, this means 15 babies were born per thousand members of population that year.


    The birth rate has fallen:
    1900 = 28.6
    2005 = 12

    3/: Total fertility rate:
    • This is the average number of children a woman would have during her lifetime.

    1960 = 2.95
    2001 = 1.63
    2006 = 1.84

    Baby Booms:
    There have been 3 baby booms in the UK since 1900
    1/: 1918- end of world war one

    2/: 1945- end of world war two

    3/: 1960’s this last baby boom was followed by a drop in the 1970’s. There has been a recent increase since 2001.

    All of the changes in birth rate and fertility show-

    • More women are remaining childless than in the past- some of the reasons for this might be:

    – Women are postponing having children until later- average age is now 29.

    Births: The Reasons

    1/: Changes in positions of women-
    (The right to vote increased job opportunities, changing attitudes, easier divorce etc.)

    • Women now see other possibilities other than the traditional housewife role. They are choosing to delay or remain childless


    Sharpe states- when women were posed the question ‘what are your main concerns for the future?’
    – 1970’s girls- ‘love, marriage and husband’
    – 1990’s girls- ‘job, career and being able to support themselves’

    Post-modernists say- In today’s society women have more choice.

    Feminist’s say-Women are no longer oppressed in a patriarchal society.

    Functionalist’s say- Women are not staying to their natural jobs.

    2/: Economic factors:

    • The cost of raising children has risen (this could be due to the school leaving age rising)
    • Children continue education (dependency therefore lasts longer)


    LV (Liverpool Victoria) estimated the cost of raising and child and putting the child through university was £180,000, this is a rise in 20% over the past 4 years.

    Skipton building society said:

    • 20% of respondents in a survey said they would remain childless because of money.
    • Another 20% said they would have no more children


    3/: Individualisation:

    Beck: we are living in an era of individualisation this means:

    • People are increasingly released from the belief systems and norms of wider society. They are free to live a life of their own.


    Children conflict with this:

    • They place limits on freedom
    • Demand time, energy, and emotional investment

    So children are postponed or adults choose not to have them at all.
    4/: Risk:
    Beck argues that society today is characterised by risk:

    • Relationships are seen as a source of risk (e.g. divorce etc)
    • Children add to this risk by putting strain on the relationship.


    E.g. quitting your job to bring up a child increases the risk of not being able to find another job. A way to eliminate this is to eliminate having children.
    The Effects of the changes

    The Family:

    • Smaller family’s mean that women can go out to work- this creates dual earner couples. Typical of today’s society. This is supported by; Silver and Schor, Young and Wilmot and Gershuny.


    However (AO2)...
    – Better off couples may be able to have more children as they can afford childcare.

    Public services and Polices-

    • Fewer schools and childcare services needed.
    • It has implications on the types of housing

    However (AO2)…
    – Instead of reducing the number of schools, it is possible to reduce class sizes

    Deaths/ Mortality

    Mortality means death and is measured in 2 main ways

    Death Rate- this is the number of deaths per thousand per year.

    This has fallen-
    1900 = 18.4
    2005 = 9.5

    Infant Mortality Rate-This is the number of deaths of infants under one year old per thousand births

    1901 = 25%
    2001 = 1%

    The trends here have been affected by the world wars (1914-1918- 1939-1945).

    The overall numbers of deaths have remained the same about 600,000 per year (there are far more in the overall population)



    The Reasons for these Changes:

    1/: Advances in medicine:

    Around 60% of the decline in mortality was due to a decrease in infectious diseases.

    Much of this was due to advances in medicine. The first half of this century saw an increase in vaccines and antibiotics.

    Around two-thirds of the fall in mortality comes from a major reduction in mortality in the first 15 years of life. This happened before widespread immunisation.

    2/: Welfare Measures

    In the late 19th century and early 20th century governments and local authorities began to take responsibility for the health and welfare of there citizens.

    In 1902 Bradford schools- started free school meals and called them the ‘meals for the needy’.

    Measure such as these raised the living standards and reduced malnutrition amongst the poorest.

    3/: Nutrition and Living Standards

    The first half of the 20th century saw the decline of ‘absolute poverty’-The inability to have adequate food and adequate shelter.

    McKeown: improved nutrition has accounted for up to half the reduction in death rates.

    However- Women live longer than men.

    The Effects of an Ageing population- Increase in life expectancy, decline in infant mortality and fertility.

    Life expectancy has gone up. This has a knock on effect. By 2041 there will be as many 78 year olds as 5 year olds.

    Public Services and Policies:

    • There will be a massive drain on the healthcare and welfare systems

    – Generally true of the over 75 year olds
    – However a lot of people are in good health

    • New Right: ‘Old people will become reliant on the state’.
    • Retirement age will go up; social policies will have to change. E.g. free public transport etc.
    • Dependency ratio- this is the amount of job’s needed compared to the amount of people to do them- the non working old are a drain on the system. The burden on the working population gets heavier.

    Hirsch argues- We should change the education system, get old people back into education for retraining.
    – Housing, old people should be encouraged to downsize.

    These changes will however require a change in attitudes towards old people.

    Family Size: The Facts

    This is obviously affected by birth rate.

    Today the most common family size is two children.

    In England and Wales- 37% of women reaching 45 had two children in 2006.

    The proportion of women having three or more children has fallen from nearly 40% in 1941, to 30% in 1961.

    Childlessness has increased in recent years- 1 in 10 born in 1941 are childless. 1 in 5 women born in 1961 are childless today.

    A person living longer also affects family size. There are more extended families etc. Great grandparents etc.
    · We have gone from the extended family to the modern nuclear family.
    · Life course analysis says we are choosing.
    · The Functionalists view of the ‘one size fits all’ family no longer makes sense because we have more choices.
    · Families are increasingly becoming beanpole like.

    and stuff like that, im taking the exam on monday and im so scared! i hope this helped x
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    Thanks ^^^^^ much appreciated. Need to get atleast a B
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    (Original post by imthe12)
    Thanks ^^^^^ much appreciated. Need to get atleast a B
    You're welcome! Same here :/ despite the fact that i'm dropping it lol
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    (Original post by neelam123h)
    is there any predictions on what can come up ??
    my teacher thinks that there will either be a 20 mark or 24 mark on couples
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    Seriously guys this is goin to be my 4th time retaking this exam and still got a U so please if u guys know how to get a D please tell me becoz I can go to uni with this grade
    Thank you
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    Any ideas on what the 24 markers might be on??? :/
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    Is there a chance that divorce would come up ?
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    Anything can come up.
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    What does everyone think would come up as the 24 marker ?😖


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    does anyone know a good way to revise this topic? ive tried everything i can think of but nothing seems to help! i got a U on my january exam and my resit is monday. also what do you think are the most likely things to come up are. SERIOUS HELP! :O
 
 
 
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