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OCR AS sociology G671 Pre-release watch

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    Guys, what sociologists did you include in how the peer groups influence ethnic identities?
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    In the pre release, Holden conducts a non participant observation which collects mainly quantitative data. Therefore, he must of used content analysis? So can I define and evaluate content analysis in the essay?
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    (Original post by Jamie585)
    In the pre release, Holden conducts a non participant observation which collects mainly quantitative data. Therefore, he must of used content analysis? So can I define and evaluate content analysis in the essay?
    Holden recorded the data on a structured schedule but he may not have used content analysis? I'm not sure. You could say he is likely to have operationalized his terms though. However, he did use content analysis for the questionnaires ('computer software was then used to analyse the data.') so you can definitely define and evaluate it there.
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    (Original post by kwameabdul)
    Holden recorded the data on a structured schedule but he may not have used content analysis? I'm not sure. You could say he is likely to have operationalized his terms though. However, he did use content analysis for the questionnaires ('computer software was then used to analyse the data.') so you can definitely define and evaluate it there.
    Ok THANKYOU, what is a structured schedule?
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    (Original post by Jamie585)
    Ok THANKYOU, what is a structured schedule?
    I'm not 100% sure but from my understanding, it is a form where terms are operationalized into a number of codes or categories and when it is observed by Holden, he will be able to tick them off.
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    8 marks questions - 5 minutes
    16 mark question - 10 minutes
    24 mark question - 15-20 minutes
    52 mark question - 45-50 minutes
    leave 10 minutes spare to read through answers. Try to get first 3 answers done as quickly as you can but ensure that you don't miss anything out. Only read case study if you need to, try to avoid doing this. I would recommend that you read through the case study tonight to ensure you have not missed anything and so that in the exam tomorrow you won't have to read it again.
    I would recommend that if you are bad with timing do the 52 mark question first.
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    (Original post by tasha212)
    8 marks questions - 5 minutes
    16 mark question - 10 minutes
    24 mark question - 15-20 minutes
    52 mark question - 45-50 minutes
    leave 10 minutes spare to read through answers. Try to get first 3 answers done as quickly as you can but ensure that you don't miss anything out. Only read case study if you need to, try to avoid doing this. I would recommend that you read through the case study tonight to ensure you have not missed anything and so that in the exam tomorrow you won't have to read it again.
    I would recommend that if you are bad with timing do the 52 mark question first.
    Hi, how would answer this question 'Outline and explain two ways in which young people are influenced by peers'?
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    (Original post by crimsonk)
    Guys, what sociologists did you include in how the peer groups influence ethnic identities?
    Sewell he talks about the concept 'Cultural comfort zones', this is when peer groups tend to include people with similar social backgrounds
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    does anyone know the ethnic background or any relevant context on Andrew holden that would be good to include on the 52 mark question?
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    does anyone know how you would answer an 8 mark question on the concept of ethnicity? I understand the definition part etc but what would you actually put as your two examples?
    thanks a lot!
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    (Original post by AlongCameEmily)
    does anyone know the ethnic background or any relevant context on Andrew holden that would be good to include on the 52 mark question?
    Research him
    (Original post by AlongCameEmily)
    does anyone know how you would answer an 8 mark question on the concept of ethnicity? I understand the definition part etc but what would you actually put as your two examples?
    thanks a lot!
    8 mark
    definition
    examples
    I normally write 3-4 sentences and get 8/8
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    (Original post by AlongCameEmily)
    does anyone know how you would answer an 8 mark question on the concept of ethnicity? I understand the definition part etc but what would you actually put as your two examples?
    thanks a lot!
    You could put that white british is an ethnicity as it has distinct norms and values such as the norm of drinking tea and the stereotypical english meal of fish and chips
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    In the mark scheme it says that you have to have wide ranging and detailed sociological knowledge. what does it mean by wide ranging?
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    (Original post by AlongCameEmily)
    does anyone know the ethnic background or any relevant context on Andrew holden that would be good to include on the 52 mark question?
    Theres not much information of Holdens social characteristics, however my lecturer has told me to put a paragraph in the PRM Essay in which I talk about how his social characteristics (CAGE) could have impacted on his research for example:

    Bias sample
    Participants of observation acting to the hawthorne effect
    Participants of questionnaires lying to appeal to his social characteristics as its easier to lie in a questionnaire than an interview
    The way he structured his questionnaires etc.
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    Ah thankyou everyone!! thats a great help!
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    (Original post by Dilzz)
    Hi, how would answer this question 'Outline and explain two ways in which young people are influenced by peers'?
    This is my answer:
    Peers are those people who we see as similar to ourselves, they tend to be the same age with similar identities, and people will usually try to make friends with their peers.
    Peers influence our education, this is due to young people identifying themselves with peer groups who are the same gender and possibly the same class. Boys tend to be negatively influenced towards education by their peers. It is often found that boys will do better at subjects such as, maths and science, than girls who tend to do better in subjects such as, English and art. This is due to some subjects being considered as feminine and others seen as masculine, as girls are expected to be more creative whereas, boys are expected to be more logical. When a boy is found to portray an image of academic succeed they may be excluded from participating with their peers with activities, such as, sports, as academic success is considered feminine and ‘nerdy’ so they aren’t considered as ‘cool’ or manly so their peers exclude them. Roberts did a study of boys in school and found that those who showed academic success were teased and bullied so would mask their academic achievements in order to be accepted among their peers, some of these boys would even start ridiculing the other boys seen as academic. This study supports hegemonic masculinity traits as traditionally men are sporty rather than academic achievers, and those boys who do not show these traits are going against the social norms of masculinity. An issue with this study is that it does not explain why girls do better than boys academically, as it states that boys mask their achievements but if that were the case boys should still achieve at least to the same standard as girls in all areas, so it may be the case that these boys rather than mask their achievements actually, deliberately start doing worse academically.
    Another way in which a young person may be influenced by their peers is through fashion trends. This is due to a young person associating themselves with peer groups and possibly subcultural groups whereby, there fashion trends go against that of mass culture, such as Goth’s who tend to wear a lot of black, bulky clothing which goes against the fashion of the masses. These young people follow the fashion trends of the groups they associate with as they wish to be included with thee social groups and in order for this to occur they feel pressured into wearing clothing similar to that of the group, also it is due to fear of exclusion and ridicule. A study done by Lees found that girls are put under great stress n looking right despite this being an unnatural feminine behaviour/trend. It is something girls are forced into in order to show that they are ‘good’ girl rather than ‘****’. Girls feared that if they dress too ‘loose’ or ‘sexy; a fashion that their reputation would be ruined. Even though the study did not find this girls also fear that if they do not wear clothes considered as fashionable for their age group they may also be teased which pressures them to try their best to keep up with fashion trends shown to be popular amongst their peers. Boys may also face ridicule when they show too much care in their appearance and clothes as this is not considered as a masculine thing to do, so they are pressured to not care about appearance and current trends as when they do they may be called names such as ‘poof’ or ‘Nancy boy’.

    I think my original essay got about 12 marks but this one has been improved and it should be worth 14 marks now, I did hand it in improved but my teacher did not give me any marks and just said that I did an excellent job.
    Question 2 is similar to that of 8 mark questions just explain your point and use a study in each paragraph and an example and your looking at about 14-16 marks if you get your points correct. If you have enough time add another study in if you can remember one just to ensure that you get good marks. Try your best to do this question in 10 minutes.
    Also write about 3/4 to 1 page for this answer.
    If anyone else wants some essays I have done essays for almost every past question and possible question for this exam not sure on marks just been sticking to the same structures that have gotten me high marks in previous essays.
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    If anyone has any question 1 examples worth 8 marks could you please post as I keep getting 6/8 or 7/8 on them and would like to see one that is worth the full marks just to get an idea of what I am doing incorrectly. Thank you
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    (Original post by tasha212)
    This is my answer:
    Peers are those people who we see as similar to ourselves, they tend to be the same age with similar identities, and people will usually try to make friends with their peers.
    Peers influence our education, this is due to young people identifying themselves with peer groups who are the same gender and possibly the same class. Boys tend to be negatively influenced towards education by their peers. It is often found that boys will do better at subjects such as, maths and science, than girls who tend to do better in subjects such as, English and art. This is due to some subjects being considered as feminine and others seen as masculine, as girls are expected to be more creative whereas, boys are expected to be more logical. When a boy is found to portray an image of academic succeed they may be excluded from participating with their peers with activities, such as, sports, as academic success is considered feminine and ‘nerdy’ so they aren’t considered as ‘cool’ or manly so their peers exclude them. Roberts did a study of boys in school and found that those who showed academic success were teased and bullied so would mask their academic achievements in order to be accepted among their peers, some of these boys would even start ridiculing the other boys seen as academic. This study supports hegemonic masculinity traits as traditionally men are sporty rather than academic achievers, and those boys who do not show these traits are going against the social norms of masculinity. An issue with this study is that it does not explain why girls do better than boys academically, as it states that boys mask their achievements but if that were the case boys should still achieve at least to the same standard as girls in all areas, so it may be the case that these boys rather than mask their achievements actually, deliberately start doing worse academically.
    Another way in which a young person may be influenced by their peers is through fashion trends. This is due to a young person associating themselves with peer groups and possibly subcultural groups whereby, there fashion trends go against that of mass culture, such as Goth’s who tend to wear a lot of black, bulky clothing which goes against the fashion of the masses. These young people follow the fashion trends of the groups they associate with as they wish to be included with thee social groups and in order for this to occur they feel pressured into wearing clothing similar to that of the group, also it is due to fear of exclusion and ridicule. A study done by Lees found that girls are put under great stress n looking right despite this being an unnatural feminine behaviour/trend. It is something girls are forced into in order to show that they are ‘good’ girl rather than ‘****’. Girls feared that if they dress too ‘loose’ or ‘sexy; a fashion that their reputation would be ruined. Even though the study did not find this girls also fear that if they do not wear clothes considered as fashionable for their age group they may also be teased which pressures them to try their best to keep up with fashion trends shown to be popular amongst their peers. Boys may also face ridicule when they show too much care in their appearance and clothes as this is not considered as a masculine thing to do, so they are pressured to not care about appearance and current trends as when they do they may be called names such as ‘poof’ or ‘Nancy boy’.

    I think my original essay got about 12 marks but this one has been improved and it should be worth 14 marks now, I did hand it in improved but my teacher did not give me any marks and just said that I did an excellent job.
    Question 2 is similar to that of 8 mark questions just explain your point and use a study in each paragraph and an example and your looking at about 14-16 marks if you get your points correct. If you have enough time add another study in if you can remember one just to ensure that you get good marks. Try your best to do this question in 10 minutes.
    Also write about 3/4 to 1 page for this answer.
    If anyone else wants some essays I have done essays for almost every past question and possible question for this exam not sure on marks just been sticking to the same structures that have gotten me high marks in previous essays.
    Can I see your essays for the possible questions please?
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    Question 24 example's which may come up in the exam

    Explain and evaluate the importance of family in the creation and reinforcement of ethnic identities

    The family is an agent of primary socialisation and plays an important role in the creation and reinforcement of ethnic identities. Our family does this through teaching us the norms and values associated with our ethnic culture. It is argued though that in modern day society the importance of the family has declined and that rather agents of secondary socialisation are becoming more important in the influence of our ethnic identities.

    Parents may influence our ethnic identities through the portrayal of their own behaviours. As children learn many things from just observing their parents attitudes, roles and behaviours, this may include their religion as those from Afghanistan and Morocco are likely to observe their parents prayer routine as in Islam it is required that you pray 5 times a day and as children observe this behaviour and are also encouraged to participate this reinforces that part of their ethnic culture. They may also observe their parents relationship as the way in which each person in a relationship is treated may relate to the culture in which they are from, as in England we see that each person within the relationship is treated as an equal but those from different ethnic cultures such as, those who are Muslim a child would observe that the mother has to obey the husband unless he asks her to do something which disobeys Allah this relationship is seen as unequal as it is outlined in the Qur’an that a husband has to go out and earn money and the wife has to stay at home, this is a traditional relationship known as a nuclear family.
    Anne Oakley proposed that parents teach us our gender identities through verbal appellations, canalisation and manipulation this can be related to our ethnic identities as Indian parents may dress their daughters in a Sari, which does influence ethnic identities as it teaches them that where they are from this is what they wear and therefore reinforces the idea of them being from India. Manipulation is also used as parents can use this in order to encourage their children to participate in certain traditions and celebrations for example, Muslims celebrate Ramadan by fasting but our discouraged from celebrating Christian holidays such as, Christmas.

    Butler found evidence that the family still plays an important role in the creation and reinforcement of ethnic identities. She studied a group of East Midlands teenage second and third generation Muslim girls and found that families are important in shaping their identities as while they want their independence through education and a career, they do not want to break family links and Islam is important for the maintenance of these.

    Although, families are important Ballard identified that young second generation Asians behaved in ways that fitted into the culture of the wider society for part of the time but at home conformed to their ethnic subculture, with children showing increased independence in terms of expecting to have some say in their choice of marriage partner although they did not generally reject the principle of arranged marriages. This indicates that in the contemporary UK ethnic minorities are starting to adopt the norms and values of the mass culture along with those of their ethnic culture meaning that the family although respected in terms of when at home conforming to their ethnic culture, are becoming less important in the influence of our ethnic identities.

    When a child enters education they are subjected to peers of different ethnicities, this could result in them learning the norms and values of different ethnicities which may result in the emergence of a new identity known as a hybrid identity whereby a person may identify themselves as both Asian and British. This may occur due to the peer pressure whereby, a person feels the need to conform to those behaviours of their peers in order to avoid exclusion and/or ridicule as studies have found that when a person does not conform with wider cultural expectations they are ridiculed although such studies do not directly explain how peers influence ethnicities they can to some extent be related, as Lees study explains how girls dress in order to avoid ridicule, which can be applied to ethnicities as Indians traditionally wear a sari but may be ridiculed by peers for wearing this and pressured into wearing Western clothing.

    Gillespie proposed that the media influences ethnic identities as the media can replicate the norms and values of a person's ethnic background. Evidence for this comes from Gillespie's study which found that some South Asians in Britain identified themselves with characters in Indian soaps such as Mahabharata, this allows these people to learn the values and norms from there ethnic origin which reinforces their ethnic identity. Gillespie proposed that the media is allowing a new identity to emerge known as a hybrid identity. Evidence to support this comes from Gillespie’s study of young British Punjabis who used television and videos to redefine their ethnic identities, as they were actively experiencing different cultures through the media and merging these with their ethnic identity to create this new hybrid identity.


    Explain and evaluate the view that ethnic identities are created through socialisation

    Parents may influence our ethnic identities through the portrayal of their own behaviours. As children learn many things from just observing their parents attitudes, roles and behaviours, this may include their religion as those from Afghanistan and Morocco are likely to observe their parents prayer routine as in Islam it is required that you pray 5 times a day and as children observe this behaviour and are also encouraged to participate this reinforces that part of their ethnic culture. They may also observe their parents relationship as the way in which each person in a relationship is treated may relate to the culture in which they are from, as in England we see that each person within the relationship is treated as an equal but those from different ethnic cultures such as, those who are Muslim a child would observe that the mother has to obey the husband unless he asks her to do something which disobeys Allah this relationship is seen as unequal as it is outlined in the Qur’an that a husband has to go out and earn money and the wife has to stay at home, this is a traditional relationship known as a nuclear family.
    Anne Oakley proposed that parents teach us our gender identities through verbal appellations, canalisation and manipulation this can be related to our ethnic identities as Indian parents may dress their daughters in a Sari, which does influence ethnic identities as it teaches them that where they are from this is what they wear and therefore reinforces the idea of them being from India. Manipulation is also used as parents can use this in order to encourage their children to participate in certain traditions and celebrations for example, Muslims celebrate Ramadan by fasting but our discouraged from celebrating Christian holidays such as, Christmas.

    Butler found evidence that the family still plays an important role in the creation and reinforcement of ethnic identities. She studied a group of East Midlands teenage second and third generation Muslim girls and found that families are important in shaping their identities as while they want their independence through education and a career, they do not want to break family links and Islam is important for the maintenance of these.

    Ballard identified that young second generation Asians behaved in ways that fitted into the culture of the wider society for part of the time but at home conformed to their ethnic subculture, with children showing increased independence in terms of expecting to have some say in their choice of marriage partner although they did not generally reject the principle of arranged marriages. This indicates that in the contemporary UK ethnic minorities are starting to adopt the norms and values of the mass culture along with those of their ethnic culture meaning that the family although respected in terms of when at home conforming to their ethnic culture, are becoming less important in the influence of our ethnic identities. This change of culture when the person is with peers and family is referred to as a ‘white mask’ by Johal as these people are conforming to their host culture when outside of their home.

    When a child enters education they are subjected to peers of different ethnicities, this could result in them learning the norms and values of different ethnicities which may result in the emergence of a new identity known as a hybrid identity whereby a person may identify themselves as both Asian and British. This may occur due to the peer pressure whereby, a person feels the need to conform to those behaviours of their peers in order to avoid exclusion and/or ridicule as studies have found that when a person does not conform with wider cultural expectations they are ridiculed although such studies do not directly explain how peers influence ethnicities they can to some extent be related, as Lees study explains how girls dress in order to avoid ridicule, which can be applied to ethnicities as Indians traditionally wear a sari but may be ridiculed by peers for wearing this and pressured into wearing Western clothing.

    Gillespie proposed that the media influences ethnic identities as the media can replicate the norms and values of a person's ethnic background. Evidence for this comes from Gillespie's study which found that some South Asians in Britain identified themselves with characters in Indian soaps such as Mahabharata, this allows these people to learn the values and norms from there ethnic origin which reinforces their ethnic identity. Gillespie proposed that the media is allowing a new identity to emerge known as a hybrid identity. Evidence to support this comes from Gillespie’s study of young British Punjabis who used television and videos to redefine their ethnic identities, as they were actively experiencing different cultures through the media and merging these with their ethnic identity to create this new hybrid identity.

    By rights both these essays should be worth between 20-22 marks as I have been following the same structure for these ones that I did for the ones I had marked.
    I will post more essays on here a bit later
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    Possible question 2's:
    Outline and explain how any two agents of socialisation can influence our ethnic identities

    Anne Oakley outlined ways in which our parents can teach us about our gender identities these included manipulation, canalisation and verbal appellations. These can be applied to how our parents teach us our ethnic identities. Our parents may use manipulation to encourage us to participate in traditions and celebrations from our ethnic background, for example Muslims fast during Ramadan and are discouraged from celebrating Christmas. Ballard found that in Britain south Asian families try to ensure that standards of behaviour did not slip and that children were kept under close scrutiny. According to Ghuman in order to reinforce ethnic identities parents would teach their children their mother-tongue, and the norms and values of the country they come from, this would help to reinforce their ethnic identity as they would see this language as their first language and therefore their native language and would be taught the celebrations and traditions of this culture. Also certain behaviours would have been taught by their families and the values behind these behaviours, for example, the drawbacks of pre-marital sex.

    The media influences ethnic identities as it can produce programmes that present the culture of a country where a person is from, which means that we can now learn the norms and values of our culture and other cultures independent of which country we live in. It is even possible that due to the media being able to present the culture of any country that this has contributed towards the homogenisation of cultures to form a global culture as proposed by Hall, this would of course lead to changes in the ethnic identity of many people. Gillespie found that some South Asians in Britain identified themselves with characters in Indian soaps such as Mahabharata, this allows these people to learn the values and norms from there ethnic origin which reinforces their ethnic identity. Gillespie also states that the media as well as reinforcing a person’s ethnic identity has caused a new ethnic identity to emerge, known as a hybrid identity. Evidence for this comes from Gillespie’s study of young British Punjabis which found that they use television and videos to redefine their ethnic identities as the media allows them to actively experience different cultures and merge these with their current ethnic identities therefore creating a new identity.

    Outline and explain how any two agents of socialisation can influence our age identities

    Media as an agent of secondary socialisation may influence our age identity due to advertisements, age related/restricted programmes and magazines such as, ‘Seventeen’ magazine which is aimed at teenagers. The media targets specific programmes at a specific age group, and these programmes include norms, values, fashion trends that they feel are suitable for the audience. These norms, values, fashion trends may be adopted by the audience, as they may associate with a specific celebrity and try to imitate their trends and behaviours. A programme in the 90’s which was extremely popular for young people was boy meets world which watched a boy from the age of 12 till he was about 19/20 and this saw him go through the troubles of being a teenager and relationship problems, this programme showed a lot of norms, values, fashion trends and problems of teenagers in this decade and many teenagers may have adopted these and learnt from this how they should behave at their age. Age restricted films, games and programmes indicate that the behaviours portrayed are only suitable for those above this age, which may be taken as that as long as you are of this age you can portray these behaviours and that these behaviours are a norm, however, many argue that ratings such as 15 portray behaviours that a 15 year should not see as a norm as many 15 involve sexual activity, violence, strong use of language, and when a person sees these behaviours they may copy them, known as ‘copycat’. The media also has a watershed in place whereby, programmes that are rated 12 and over cannot be shown until after nine as this is the time they believe that children are in bed and therefore will not be able to view these programmes.

    Peers as an agent of secondary socialisation influence our age identity through norms, values, and fashion trends. Lees studied female teenagers in London school and found that girls are forced into a state where great stress is put on looking right as they need to show that they are good girls rather than ****s and that these girls feared that if they dressed too loose or sexy a fashion their reputations would be destroyed, this mean that girls do not naturally care about what they look like but rather they are pressured by their peers. Peers influence us through the use of peer pressure as when peers take up a new activity or start wearing different clothes if an individual does not conform to these they may start to exclude them from activities they do, which can make this person feel pressured to conform to the group even if they do not agree with their norms and values, for example, when peers start going to parties and drinking they may not invite one of their friends as they don’t drink so won’t be any fun, this can cause this peer to start drinking when they go to parties in order to become included with their peer group.

    Outline and explain two ways in which young people are influences by their peers.

    Peers are those people who we see as similar to ourselves, they tend to be the same age with similar identities, and people will usually try to make friends with their peers.
    Peers influence our education, this is due to young people identifying themselves with peer groups who are the same gender and possibly the same class. Boys tend to be negatively influenced towards education by their peers. It is often found that boys will do better at subjects such as, maths and science, than girls who tend to do better in subjects such as, English and art. This is due to some subjects being considered as feminine and others seen as masculine, as girls are expected to be more creative whereas, boys are expected to be more logical. When a boy is found to portray an image of academic succeed they may be excluded from participating with their peers with activities, such as, sports, as academic success is considered feminine and ‘nerdy’ so they aren’t considered as ‘cool’ or manly so their peers exclude them. Roberts did a study of boys in school and found that those who showed academic success were teased and bullied so would mask their academic achievements in order to be accepted among their peers, some of these boys would even start ridiculing the other boys seen as academic. This study supports hegemonic masculinity traits as traditionally men are sporty rather than academic achievers, and those boys who do not show these traits are going against the social norms of masculinity. An issue with this study is that it does not explain why girls do better than boys academically, as it states that boys mask their achievements but if that were the case boys should still achieve at least to the same standard as girls in all areas, so it may be the case that these boys rather than mask their achievements actually, deliberately start doing worse academically.

    Another way in which a young person may be influenced by their peers is through fashion trends. This is due to a young person associating themselves with peer groups and possibly subcultural groups whereby, there fashion trends go against that of mass culture, such as Goth’s who tend to wear a lot of black, bulky clothing which goes against the fashion of the masses. These young people follow the fashion trends of the groups they associate with as they wish to be included with thee social groups and in order for this to occur they feel pressured into wearing clothing similar to that of the group, also it is due to fear of exclusion and ridicule. A study done by Lees found that girls are put under great stress n looking right despite this being an unnatural feminine behaviour/trend. It is something girls are forced into in order to show that they are ‘good’ girl rather than ‘****’. Girls feared that if they dress too ‘loose’ or ‘sexy; a fashion that their reputation would be ruined. Even though the study did not find this girls also fear that if they do not wear clothes considered as fashionable for their age group they may also be teased which pressures them to try their best to keep up with fashion trends shown to be popular amongst their peers. Boys may also face ridicule when they show too much care in their appearance and clothes as this is not considered as a masculine thing to do, so they are pressured to not care about appearance and current trends as when they do they may be called names such as ‘poof’ or ‘Nancy boy’.

    Outline and explain any two ways in which we experience social control

    One way in which individuals may experience social control is through education. This is due to observation of teachers, what we learn and interaction with peers. Our peers may influence our norms, values and beliefs and can also pressure us into doing thing we do not agree with. Roberts conducted a study which found that boys who achieved well academically were excluded and ridiculed leading them to either hide their academic achievements or to focus less on education in order to be accepted among their peers. Observation of teachers allows us to view the roles that teachers take on according to their gender, so can teach us norms and values according to our genders reinforcing behaviours associated with our gender. A study which shows how teachers may socially control us was conducted by Skelton in a primary school it was found that teachers were asked to do roles associated with their appropriate gender, for example, male teachers were asked to set out the chairs for assemblies, which reinforces masculine identities as it shows that men do the strenuous work. Another way in which education socially controls us is through the hidden curriculum which is believed to be used in lessons in order to reinforce norms and values that the government want us to learn, the hidden curriculum is believed to be a way in which elitists can socialise us in a way that we will become easier to socially control and therefore become better workers.

    Another way in which we may experience social control is through the media. The media believed to be exclusively controlled by the elitists, which means that they can use this control over the media to imbed norms and values into the public in order to dim their minds and make them more passive and therefore more controllable. The media also influences music preferences, and fashion trends. Over the last decade the media has influenced masculinity hugely, as it has bought about the new man identity, due to promoting fashion trends for men and promoting the caring, loving man, who helps around the house, they have also portrayed men as caring about looks and how they smell, using celebrities such as, David Beckham who cares about looks, is a family man but is also a footballer. This influence that the media has had on masculinity has caused what is known as the ‘crisis’ of masculinity as it has resulted in hegemonic masculinity fading out, this is a form of social control as it has result in men becoming somewhat more feminine in identity, this can be beneficial for those elitists as it can cause sales to increase in clothing, hair products, deodorants, moisturisers, and perfumes. Another way in which the media controls us is through newspapers, as the articles chosen to be publicised are decided by those with control, and these articles have been known to cause many moral panics as they over exaggerate the truth, for example, teenagers wearing hoodies became a moral panic as newspapers labelled this group as ‘folk devils’ and many people started to believe that teens in hoodies were dangerous, when they are in fact not, it is just a minority of people who wear hoodies that are dangerous just as with many other subcultural groups.
 
 
 
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