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Paulineuh
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#1641
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#1641
(Original post by elliewoodheadx)
Please could somebody explain immunological comparisons to me again, I've read a couple of other descriptions but i don't know why i just cant understand it..
Thanks in advance!
Basically, you're trying to look at similarities of proteins between two species - let's say Human and Chimpanzee.

- You inject serum (which has antigens) from the human into a rabbit which produces antibodies specific to the antigens of the human.
- You then inject the serum (has antibodies specific to the human) into the Chimp.
- The Chimp's antigens bind to antibodies that has the same binding site, this forms a precipitate.
- More precipitate = more closely related = similar proteins
- Less precipitate = more distantly related = different proteins
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WheezyT
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#1642
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#1642
(Original post by elliewoodheadx)
Please could somebody explain immunological comparisons to me again, I've read a couple of other descriptions but i don't know why i just cant understand it..
Thanks in advance!
So think of it this way species A is human

Species B is a chimp

You take the albumin from the Human and place it into a Mouse for example.

The mouse has an immunological reaction to the albumin (which had antigens on it) the mouse creates antibodies that are a complimentary shape to the antigens of the human.
The antibodies are extracted and placed in a solution with albumin from the Chimp

As they're closely related the antigens of the human and chimp should be similar due to the bases on the dna to be similar causing the amino acid to be the same (remember antigens are protiens)

So this means that when you put the antibodies with the CHIMP albumin they would bind as they're complimentary shapes...

So more precipitate forms (my teacher said the more closely related the more precipitate as a rule of thumb)

Hope this helped

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sceezy
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#1643
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#1643
anyone got the jan 2013 paper and mark scheme
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SchoolKid.
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#1644
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#1644
(Original post by sceezy)
anyone got the jan 2013 paper and mark scheme
Here you go -

https://skydrive.live.com/?cid=ab9a5...012167BC%21110
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elliewoodheadx
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#1645
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#1645
(Original post by Paulineuh)
Basically, you're trying to look at similarities of proteins between two species - let's say Human and Chimpanzee.

- You inject serum (which has antigens) from the human into a rabbit which produces antibodies specific to the antigens of the human.
- You then inject the serum (has antibodies specific to the human) into the Chimp.
- The Chimp's antigens bind to antibodies that has the same binding site, this forms a precipitate.
- More precipitate = more closely related = similar proteins
- Less precipitate = more distantly related = different proteins
(Original post by WheezyT)
So think of it this way species A is human

Species B is a chimp

You take the albumin from the Human and place it into a Mouse for example.

The mouse has an immunological reaction to the albumin (which had antigens on it) the mouse creates antibodies that are a complimentary shape to the antigens of the human.
The antibodies are extracted and placed in a solution with albumin from the Chimp

As they're closely related the antigens of the human and chimp should be similar due to the bases on the dna to be similar causing the amino acid to be the same (remember antigens are protiens)

So this means that when you put the antibodies with the CHIMP albumin they would bind as they're complimentary shapes...

So more precipitate forms (my teacher said the more closely related the more precipitate as a rule of thumb)

Hope this helped

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Thank you so much guys this really helped!
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Rory456
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#1646
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#1646
Does anyone know where you can find the January 2013 unit 2 exam paper and mark scheme?
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starfish232
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#1647
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#1647
(Original post by WheezyT)
So think of it this way species A is human

Species B is a chimp

You take the albumin from the Human and place it into a Mouse for example.

The mouse has an immunological reaction to the albumin (which had antigens on it) the mouse creates antibodies that are a complimentary shape to the antigens of the human.
The antibodies are extracted and placed in a solution with albumin from the Chimp

As they're closely related the antigens of the human and chimp should be similar due to the bases on the dna to be similar causing the amino acid to be the same (remember antigens are protiens)

So this means that when you put the antibodies with the CHIMP albumin they would bind as they're complimentary shapes...

So more precipitate forms (my teacher said the more closely related the more precipitate as a rule of thumb)

Hope this helped

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Sorry you were answering this for someone else but I just wanted to calrify that with immunological comparison, the mouse is used to produce the antibodies complimentary to the anitgens in humans amd chimp and so the more antibody-antigen complexes being formed the more percipitate is made. Both humans and chimps form percipitate and so the more similar amounts they form the more closely related they are.Is this right?
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dooobie_
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I think some people go way in depth than what actually needs to be remembered. I have just looked on a revision guide on the internet of 43 pages and about 20 pages was absolute nonsense that was too in depth and we don't need to know it. Revise out of text books and files/exercise books, don't go looking for too much information

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WheezyT
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#1649
(Original post by starfish232)
Sorry you were answering this for someone else but I just wanted to calrify that with immunological comparison, the mouse is used to produce the antibodies complimentary to the anitgens in humans amd chimp and so the more antibody-antigen complexes being formed the more percipitate is made. Both humans and chimps form percipitate and so the more similar amounts they form the more closely related they are.Is this right?
The mouse creates antibodies complimentary to either the human or the chimp, it depends on which albumin you put in, And yeah you got it. So when you take the antibodies out and place it with the Human or the chimp (depending on which you put in the mouse) more antigen antibody complexes are created because of the similar shapes between the antigens.

So there is more precipitate
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Suzanna5678
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#1650
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#1650
Getting REALLY restless now someone help
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bad8oy
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#1651
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#1651
(Original post by zbert)
I'M DESPERATE !!! :confused:
Lol you don't need to know the stages of meiosis lol don't stress it.


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bad8oy
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#1652
(Original post by Suzanna5678)
Getting REALLY restless now someone help
Restless about what...this unit isn't as hard as you think it is


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dooobie_
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#1653
The only hard topics for me is Cell differentiation, exchange and transport systems and biochem. What are other peoples hard topics?

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bad8oy
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#1654
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#1654
(Original post by starfish232)
Sorry you were answering this for someone else but I just wanted to calrify that with immunological comparison, the mouse is used to produce the antibodies complimentary to the anitgens in humans amd chimp and so the more antibody-antigen complexes being formed the more percipitate is made. Both humans and chimps form percipitate and so the more similar amounts they form the more closely related they are.Is this right?
Don't talk about human ppt lol they won't just give chimpanzees they'll give the ppt of a fish aswell. Then say which one more closely related. Then you say chimp as more ppt formed


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Areen5
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#1655
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#1655
(Original post by Suzanna5678)
Attachment 221966Someone help
What paper is this?
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WavingFLag
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#1656
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#1656
(Original post by DrFantastic)
Was wondering if anyone could help me out;

I'm revising Mitosis but I'm so confused on cell cycle.

I know Mitosis is split into Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase but when does the cell cycle start and end?

It's confusing and when there are questions asking "how long were the cells in Mitosis", how on earth do you go about working them out?

Any help at all is appreciated, please quote
You can think of interphase as it's own stage. The process of mitosis begins at prophase.
That's the simplest and best explanation
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Suzanna5678
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#1657
(Original post by bad8oy)
Restless about what...this unit isn't as hard as you think it is


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Yeah but you just don't know what you're gonna get with how science works questions
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Jimmy20002012
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#1658
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#1658
Could anyone explain quickly the appoplast and symplast pathway, does water in both travel by osmosis?


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lauraddie
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#1659
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#1659
Could somebody briefly describe DNA hybridisation?Thank you
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Areen5
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#1660
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#1660
Do we need to know the whole "evidence for semi-conservative replication"?
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