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JoshL123
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#1681
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Hey everyone, just a quick question. If an essay was to come up with "movement in cells", what would first come to mind? Movement into cells itself and out or actually movement inside of cells? Thank you
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Rook42
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(Original post by JenLivYoung)
This post made my day :')
Same :')
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helpme456
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have asked this q so many times now still dont understand it.

Is PCR a method of obtaining fragments or cloning fragments.

The black book says its used for obtaining fragments then it is clone used using in vivo or invitro. But I thought PCR was in vitro. So confused!
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stoppy123
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(Original post by helpme456)
have asked this q so many times now still dont understand it.

Is PCR a method of obtaining fragments or cloning fragments.

The black book says its used for obtaining fragments then it is clone used using in vivo or invitro. But I thought PCR was in vitro. So confused!
Cloning.

Obtaining fragments is done by restriction endonucleases.
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stoppy123
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(Original post by JoshL123)
Hey everyone, just a quick question. If an essay was to come up with "movement in cells", what would first come to mind? Movement into cells itself and out or actually movement inside of cells? Thank you
  • Diffusion
  • Active transport
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Movement of RNA to ribosome
  • Movement of proteins to golgi
  • Movement of free nucleotides during dna replication
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JoshL123
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(Original post by stoppy123)
  • Diffusion
  • Active transport
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Movement of RNA to ribosome
  • Movement of proteins to golgi
  • Movement of free nucleotides during dna replication
A thank you! See a few of my friends were talking about this I personally thought that it was movement within the cell itself, rather than movement through the cell. So that was why I did not include points on facilitated diffusion of glucose, active transport and diffusion. Got the other points though (though forgot about the DNA mononucleotides)
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helpme456
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(Original post by stoppy123)
Cloning.

Obtaining fragments is done by restriction endonucleases.
Thats what I thought too and thought the black book might be wrong. Looked at the spec and found this:

Fragments of DNA can be produced by
• conversion of mRNA to cDNA, using reverse transcriptase
• cutting DNA at specific, palindromic recognition sequences using restriction
endonucleases
• the polymerse chain reaction (PCR).

dont know whats right now
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Rook42
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(Original post by stoppy123)
Cloning.

Obtaining fragments is done by restriction endonucleases.
The spec also says that PCR can be used to obtain DNA fragments. Therefore it both clones directly (In vitro gene cloning) and produces DNA fragments. DNA fragments can also be produced using restriction endonucleases and through use of reverse transcriptase.
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Rook42
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(Original post by helpme456)
Thats what I thought too and thought the black book might be wrong. Looked at the spec and found this:

Fragments of DNA can be produced by
• conversion of mRNA to cDNA, using reverse transcriptase
• cutting DNA at specific, palindromic recognition sequences using restriction
endonucleases
• the polymerse chain reaction (PCR).

dont know whats right now
Basically it does both: it clones DNA and by doing so produces fragments.
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jonnyb123
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(Original post by JenLivYoung)
I wasn't knocking your idea, I was just commenting that it wouldn't be nice of AQA to do so, but they're an exam board so they could do something like that

However, a large proportion of that is Module 5 though, I appreciate that some will points touch on Module 1, with the role of the heart, and a bit of Mod 4, however, there's still a limited range from areas that are in other modules.

I've done quite a few essays, and whilst some, like you said, have a limited amount to talk about, you can still talk about things from all the modules.
To be honest I prefer that, seeing as my AS knowledge is pretty awful, I'd prefer an essay centered mostly around stuff from units 4 and 5, I'm normally only able to muster 1 or 2 points from AS, but that's all you need really to get the tick for including AS knowledge.


(Original post by JoshL123)
A thank you! See a few of my friends were talking about this I personally thought that it was movement within the cell itself, rather than movement through the cell. So that was why I did not include points on facilitated diffusion of glucose, active transport and diffusion. Got the other points though (though forgot about the DNA mononucleotides)
Also I think this might be one: when oestrogen binds to a the receptor and causes it to change shape and release the inhibitor of the transcriptional factor, the transcriptional factor can now move through the nuclear pore into the nucleus where it binds to DNA at specific region and starts transcription etc.
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helpme456
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(Original post by Rook42)
The spec also says that PCR can be used to obtain DNA fragments. Therefore it both clones directly (In vitro gene cloning) and produces DNA fragments. DNA fragments can also be produced using restriction endonucleases and through use of reverse transcriptase.
(Original post by Rook42)
Basically it does both: it clones DNA and by doing so produces fragments.
Ok thanks mate.
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master y
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(Original post by JoshL123)
A thank you! See a few of my friends were talking about this I personally thought that it was movement within the cell itself, rather than movement through the cell. So that was why I did not include points on facilitated diffusion of glucose, active transport and diffusion. Got the other points though (though forgot about the DNA mononucleotides)
could you also talk about nerve impulses, & muscle contraction.. brcause there are movements in those cells too! and photosynthesis etc
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Zazuwaved
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Thank you
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charch95
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(Original post by jonnyb123)
The heck is that? I've never even heard of that, where is it in the book?

Thanks for the list, great help!
I was thinking the same thing!!! I remember learning something about water concentration and urine in GCSE, I can't remember if we did it at AS... Maybe we wouldn't have to mention that point unless we were aiming for 16 marks for scientific content...!
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YWArtist
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Why are the primers radioactively marked in DNA sequencing?
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Beth_L_G
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#1696
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(Original post by charch95)
I was thinking the same thing!!! I remember learning something about water concentration and urine in GCSE, I can't remember if we did it at AS... Maybe we wouldn't have to mention that point unless we were aiming for 16 marks for scientific content...!
It was GCSE yeah. If I were you I'd learn it but only in a small amount of detail, pretty much what the original person said, as you'd be surprised how many times you can link it in
(negative feedback, substances across membranes, hormonal control, you could even mention it in one about disease as damage can cause diabetes insipidus)
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JoshL123
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(Original post by jonnyb123)
To be honest I prefer that, seeing as my AS knowledge is pretty awful, I'd prefer an essay centered mostly around stuff from units 4 and 5, I'm normally only able to muster 1 or 2 points from AS, but that's all you need really to get the tick for including AS knowledge.




Also I think this might be one: when oestrogen binds to a the receptor and causes it to change shape and release the inhibitor of the transcriptional factor, the transcriptional factor can now move through the nuclear pore into the nucleus where it binds to DNA at specific region and starts transcription etc.
Thank you Didn't think of the ostrogen - oestrogen receptor complex

(Original post by master y)
could you also talk about nerve impulses, & muscle contraction.. brcause there are movements in those cells too! and photosynthesis etc
Didn't hink of nerve impulses, but got muscle contraction! Thank you!

Its amazing how many different ideas you can get just by talking to people about it
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master y
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How is ATP linked to digestion... might sound like a stupid question
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Affliction
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(Original post by YWArtist)
Why are the primers radioactively marked in DNA sequencing?
Once you've carried out gel electrophoresis on the DNA, you examine the agarose gel under UV light and due to the radioactivity of the primer you can visibly see where each fragment is in the gel. I hope that makes sense.
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rath90
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On page 166 of the textbook it states that the direction of the impulse is in the opposite direction to the action potential? Why is this so?
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