GCSE OCR 21st Century Triple Science (CBP1-7) Thread Watch

Amyjonesx
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#1821
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#1821
"Describe how microorganisms are used in industry, give examples and explain them"
what are the points we would make for this question? I dont know if im misinterpreting it
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HappyHylian
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#1822
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(Original post by Amyjonesx)
"Describe how microorganisms are used in industry, give examples and explain them"
what are the points we would make for this question? I dont know if im misinterpreting it
Sorry I worded that question horribly, I meant to say "Describe WHY microorganisms are used in industry, give examples of how they are used and explain why they are used for that".
So basically:

1.) They reproduce rapidly under the right conditions so products can be made quickly. They have plasmids - these can be genetically modified so you can make the microorganism produce the product you need. Their biochemistry is quite simple - fewer reactions happen in microorganisms than in humans, this means you can make the microorganism produce things that they normally wouldn't without causing them major problems. They can make complex molecules that are difficult to produce artificially. There aren't any ethical concerns with using microorganisms - you could grow loads of them and throw them in a bin without upsetting anyone.
2.) They are used for antibiotics by growing penicillium mould in a fermenter. Also A single-celled protein made by fungi used to make meat substitutes for vegetarian meals. (Quorn).
Also for enzymes for making food, like cheese can be made by a microorganism that is genetically modified to create chymosin (important enzyme in rennet) to produce a vegetarian substitute for cheese. ('Cause rennet usually comes from the lining of a calf's stomach).
Enzymes for washing powders, enzymes produced by bacteria can be used in washing powders because they break down stains like amylase enzymes remove carbs stains (e.g. jam).
Biofuels - microorganisms can be used to make fuel, like yeast can be used to produce ethanol by the waste produce of anaerobic respiration which can be used for car fuel known as 'gasohol'. And microorganisms can be used to produce biogas which is used for heating, cooking and lighting. Its made by the fermentation of plant and animal waste containing carbs.
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KJC79
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#1823
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#1823
(Original post by Sulfur)
Off topic once again, but in the C456 the first question was about two similarities with the reaction of alkali metals and water... I put that they produced an alkaline solution and hydrogen gas, that's fine right? My minds just had one of them moments where it's brought a question back into my head and I'm doubting.
I said that they are both very reactive in cold water and that they produce a hydroxide of the metal and hydrogen
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HappyHylian
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#1824
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#1824
(( It's in the spec ))
Attached files
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Amyjonesx
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#1825
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#1825
(Original post by HappyHylian)
Sorry I worded that question horribly, I meant to say "Describe WHY microorganisms are used in industry, give examples of how they are used and explain why they are used for that".
So basically:

1.) They reproduce rapidly under the right conditions so products can be made quickly. They have plasmids - these can be genetically modified so you can make the microorganism produce the product you need. Their biochemistry is quite simple - fewer reactions happen in microorganisms than in humans, this means you can make the microorganism produce things that they normally wouldn't without causing them major problems. They can make complex molecules that are difficult to produce artificially. There aren't any ethical concerns with using microorganisms - you could grow loads of them and throw them in a bin without upsetting anyone.
2.) They are used for antibiotics by growing penicillium mould in a fermenter. Also A single-celled protein made by fungi used to make meat substitutes for vegetarian meals. (Quorn).
Also for enzymes for making food, like cheese can be made by a microorganism that is genetically modified to create chymosin (important enzyme in rennet) to produce a vegetarian substitute for cheese. ('Cause rennet usually comes from the lining of a calf's stomach).
Enzymes for washing powders, enzymes produced by bacteria can be used in washing powders because they break down stains like amylase enzymes remove carbs stains (e.g. jam).
Biofuels - microorganisms can be used to make fuel, like yeast can be used to produce ethanol by the waste produce of anaerobic respiration which can be used for car fuel known as 'gasohol'. And microorganisms can be used to produce biogas which is used for heating, cooking and lighting. Its made by the fermentation of plant and animal waste containing carbs.
Wow thankyou so much! That is extremely helpful! Thankyou thankyou thankyou
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HappyHylian
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#1826
(Original post by Amyjonesx)
Wow thankyou so much! That is extremely helpful! Thankyou thankyou thankyou
Y'welcome ^^
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Pandorax
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(Original post by Sulfur)
The gene probes are used in genetic testing to find a faulty allele. This is the process:

You take a blood sample from the person, from their arm is the most common method.
Your blood contains white blood cells and DNA, so you want to separate your DNA from the white blood cells.
Then, you want to create a gene probe. Gene probes are a strand of complimentary bases (A, T, C, G) that sticks to the faulty gene. You add a fluorescent marker to it too.
Then, you mix the gene probe with DNA so the complimentary bases stick to your DNA (AT, CG) and if there's a base that doesn't match, you'll find the faulty gene.
To make sure that you've found the faulty gene, you shine a UV light onto the gene probe that the fluorescent marker finds, if it glows then you'll find the faulty gene and know where it's located.

Ooh thanks so much! My text book didn't really explain it very well O.-
So it's pretty much just:
1) Genetic testing-Finding a faulty allele
2) The DNA is isolated from a white blood cell and nucleus
3) A gene probe is created and the DNA is broken down into smaller pieces
4) Gene probes act as markers as they stick to the wanted gene within the DNA
5) UV light can then be shined onto the DNA, and the marker will show because it is flourescent


Also, do you know what is the difference between the cardiac cycle and the double circulatory one?(The one with oxygenated, deoxygenated blood) And what type of question would they ask you for each one? Thankyou!
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Magnesium
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#1828
(Original post by Pandorax)
Can someone explain the genetic probe DNA test thing in note form as simply as possible? D:
Okay so genetic disorders derive from a faulty gene.

1. Take a DNA sample
2. Isolate the DNA from the white blood cells since a blood sample will contain a lot of white blood cells as well as DNA.
3. Create a Gene Probe that has complementary bases to the DNA you are trying to find.
4. Mix the gene probe with the DNA, and if the specific gene is present, the probe will latch on to it and stick to it.

In order to be able to physically see if the gene probe has latched onto it, scientists attach a fluorescent marker on to the gene probe when creating it. This means that if it latches on, scientists can tell by shining UV light on it and the marker will fluoresce.
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corporal
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#1829
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#1829
Explain what ' oxygen debt' is?:confused:
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katiemckkk
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#1830
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#1830
Anyone got a link for the June past paper,can only find the specimen one? Thanks
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katiemckkk
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(Original post by corporal)
Explain what ' oxygen debt' is?:confused:
I only know this from PE, it's not in my Biology revision guide. But it is when you exercise anaerobically and you get a lactic acid build up, oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen that you need to neutralise the acid and to 'pay back' to your muscles. But I'm sure this isn't in B7 is it?? :confused:
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corporal
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#1832
(Original post by katiemckkk)
I only know this from PE, it's not in my Biology revision guide. But it is when you exercise anaerobically and you get a lactic acid build up, oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen that you need to neutralise the acid and to 'pay back' to your muscles. But I'm sure this isn't in B7 is it?? :confused:

It's a past paper question
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corporal
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#1833
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#1833
People, You know for our exam will we get an insert like previous years?
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LouiseDB42
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#1834
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#1834
(Original post by corporal)
It's a past paper question
Don't forget that if it's from before 2013 it's almost irrelevant because the spec has significantly changed - the only relevant past papers are from 2013 and the specimen. Before the change respiration used to be a big part of b7 (I have those past papers too) but now respiration is in b4 and not in b7 at all.
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LouiseDB42
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#1835
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#1835
(Original post by katiemckkk)
Anyone got a link for the June past paper,can only find the specimen one? Thanks
A163-02Jun13.pdf
A163-02_MS_June13.pdf
I think I've put the link in right one is the paper and the other is the mark scheme
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corporal
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#1836
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#1836
(Original post by LouiseDB42)
A163-02Jun13.pdf
A163-02_MS_June13.pdf
I think I've put the link in right one is the paper and the other is the mark scheme

the link doesn't work.
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lyricalvibe
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(Original post by katiemckkk)
Anyone got a link for the June past paper,can only find the specimen one? Thanks
I think page 79 someone put it up
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olmyster911
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#1838
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#1838
Ecosystems are the most boring things to revise in the whole of the GCSEs..:mad:

It's taken me 3 hours to do one page in the revision guide.
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ToLiveInADream
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(Original post by olmyster911)
Ecosystems are the most boring things to revise in the whole of the GCSEs..:mad:

It's taken me 3 hours to do one page in the revision guide.
But so easy, no?

Posted from TSR Mobile
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lyricalvibe
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(Original post by olmyster911)
Ecosystems are the most boring things to revise in the whole of the GCSEs..:mad:

It's taken me 3 hours to do one page in the revision guide.
This. It took me the whole of yesterday to learn that ****, and I didn't even finish it :lol: it took me less time for c4-6 -_-
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