(Original post by Amyjonesx)
"Describe how microorganisms are used in industry, give examples and explain them"
what are the points we would make for this question? I dont know if im misinterpreting it
Sorry I worded that question horribly, I meant to say "Describe WHY microorganisms are used in industry, give examples of how they are used and explain why they are used for that".
1.) They reproduce rapidly under the right conditions so products can be made quickly. They have plasmids - these can be genetically modified so you can make the microorganism produce the product you need. Their biochemistry is quite simple - fewer reactions happen in microorganisms than in humans, this means you can make the microorganism produce things that they normally wouldn't without causing them major problems. They can make complex molecules that are difficult to produce artificially. There aren't any ethical concerns with using microorganisms - you could grow loads of them and throw them in a bin without upsetting anyone.
2.) They are used for antibiotics by growing penicillium mould in a fermenter. Also A single-celled protein made by fungi used to make meat substitutes for vegetarian meals. (Quorn).
Also for enzymes for making food, like cheese can be made by a microorganism that is genetically modified to create chymosin (important enzyme in rennet) to produce a vegetarian substitute for cheese. ('Cause rennet usually comes from the lining of a calf's stomach).
Enzymes for washing powders, enzymes produced by bacteria can be used in washing powders because they break down stains like amylase enzymes remove carbs stains (e.g. jam).
Biofuels - microorganisms can be used to make fuel, like yeast can be used to produce ethanol by the waste produce of anaerobic respiration which can be used for car fuel known as 'gasohol'. And microorganisms can be used to produce biogas which is used for heating, cooking and lighting. Its made by the fermentation of plant and animal waste containing carbs.