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    Hey is resting potential -70mv or -60mv?? =S
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    Do wee need to know the structure of nad and coA?
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    (Original post by BHAM!)
    Hey is resting potential -70mv or -60mv?? =S
    yes , -70mv
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    (Original post by wiill)
    Do wee need to know the structure of nad and coA?
    bit on nad, that it takes in to H atoms, and makes 2.5 actual atp.not 3
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    (Original post by wiill)
    Do wee need to know the structure of nad and coA?
    Nope...:confused:
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    bit on nad, that it takes in to H atoms, and makes 2.5 actual atp.not 3
    But not the actual molecular structure right?:eek:
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    come on remarqable M, i'm waiting...:p:
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    (Original post by BHAM!)
    But not the actual molecular structure right?:eek:
    nope.
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    (Original post by BHAM!)
    Nope...:confused:
    I learnt it incase, so just look over it.

    NAD:

    Nictotinamide adeneine dinucleotide

    -Nicotinamine
    Adenine
    2 Ribose
    2 phosphates

    Coenzyme A

    -3 phosphates
    -cystene
    -panthothenic acid
    -ribose
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    I learnt it incase, so just look over it.

    NAD:

    Nictotinamide adeneine dinucleotide

    -Nicotinamine
    Adenine
    2 Ribose
    2 phosphates

    Coenzyme A

    -3 phosphates
    -cystene
    -panthothenic acid
    -ribose
    Add to that (not needed) co enzyme A is made up of 23 carbons.
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    first photsynthesis round and then later respiration round.


    1) define the terms autotrophs and heterotrophs.

    2) how many stages is photsynthesis?

    3) what are adaptations of chloroplasts and how does it help in photosynthesis(5 points only)

    4) define the term photosynthetic pgiments.

    5) explain the importance of photosynthetic pigments in photosynthesis.

    6) What is the wavelenght of peak absorption in photosystem 1 and 2.

    7) why are acessory pigments needed in photosynthesis?

    8) Do carotenoids absorb light of wavelength 500nm?

    9) Explain the role of waterr in the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis.

    10) Outline the light dependent stage of photosynthesis, with reference to non-cyclic phosphorylation and cyclic phosphorylation


    12) what are electron acceptors?

    13) What products from the light-dependent reaction are used in the Calvin cycle and state how they are used.

    14) Explain the role of Carbon Dioxide

    15) Are TP and GP used to make carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids?

    16) what is TP recycled to?

    17) what is the enzyme responsible for the fixation of carbon dioxide called?

    18) Why is the enzyme you just mentioned above the most important enzyme on Earth?

    19) define the limiting factor.

    20) how does light intensity affect the concentration of GP and TP.

    21) what is the apparatus used to measure the rate of photosynthesis by collecting and measuring the volume of oxygen produced called?

    you have 25min to answer all questions if possible!
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    yes , -70mv
    Its -60mv. If this releates to the resting potential of neurones.
    It is -70mv if relating to the pd. across B-cell, during regulation of insulin levels.
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    Im not done. I will print of these questions/look at them after kidneys!
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    first photsynthesis round and then later respiration round.


    1) define the terms autotrophs and heterotrophs.

    Autotroph- an organism which uses light energy/chemical potenital energy to sythesise large organic molecules from inorganic substances.

    Heterotroph- an organism that ingests and digests complex organic molecules to release the chemical PE stored in them.

    2) how many stages is photsynthesis?

    There are 2 stages . LDS and LIS (or calvin cycle)

    3) what are adaptations of chloroplasts and how does it help in photosynthesis(5 points only)

    -There are many grana, consiting of up to 100 thylakoids providing lage SA for light absorption, and ATP synthesis.
    -The cholorplast can make some of the proteins for photosythensis
    -Photosyntheic molecules held in photosystems
    Stroma surrounds grana-easy transports of products from LDS-LIS

    4) define the term photosynthetic pgiment.

    A molecule that absorbs light energy, can absorb a range of wavelengths but has its own peak of absorption.

    5) explain the importance of photosynthetic pigments in photosynthesis.

    Light absorption-electrons excitied-passes along chain-generate ATP and NADPH.

    6) What is the wavelenght of peak absorption in photosystem 1 and 2.
    PS1 -p700
    Ps2- p680

    7) why are acessory pigments needed in photosynthesis?

    They absorb wavelenghs not well absorbed by photosynthetic pigments.

    8) Do carotenoids absorb light of wavelength 500nm?
    yes.

    9) Explain the role of waterr in the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis.

    ---gotta go, realised i need to look something up!

    10) Outline the light dependent stage of photosynthesis, with reference to non-cyclic phosphorylation and cyclic phosphorylation


    12) what are electron acceptors?

    13) What products from the light-dependent reaction are used in the Calvin cycle and state how they are used.

    14) Explain the role of Carbon Dioxide

    15) Are TP and GP used to make carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids?

    16) what is TP recycled to?

    17) what is the enzyme responsible for the fixation of carbon dioxide called?

    18) Why is the enzyme you just mentioned above the most important enzyme on Earth?

    19) define the limiting factor.

    20) how does light intensity affect the concentration of GP and TP.

    21) what is the apparatus used to measure the rate of photosynthesis by collecting and measuring the volume of oxygen produced called?

    you have 25min to answer all questions if possible!

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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    Its -60mv. If this releates to the resting potential of neurones.
    It is -70mv if relating to the pd. across B-cell, during regulation of insulin levels.
    Textbook says -70mv im really confused
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    first photsynthesis round and then later respiration round.


    1) define the terms autotrophs and heterotrophs.

    2) how many stages is photsynthesis?

    3) what are adaptations of chloroplasts and how does it help in photosynthesis.

    4) define the term photosynthetic pgiment.

    5) explain the importance of photosynthetic pigments in photosynthesis.

    6) What is the wavelenght of peak absorption in photosystem 1 and 2.

    7) why are acessory pigments needed in photosynthesis?

    8) Do carotenoids absorb light of wavelength 500nm?

    9) Explain the role of waterr in the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis.

    10) Outline the light dependent stage of photosynthesis, with reference to non-cyclic phosphorylation and cyclic phosphorylation


    12) what are electron acceptors?

    13) What products from the light-dependent reaction are used in the Calvin cycle and state how they are used.

    14) Explain the role of Carbon Dioxide

    15) Are TP and GP used to make carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids?

    16) what is TP recycled to?

    17) what is the enzyme responsible for the fixation of carbon dioxide called?

    18) Why is the enzyme you just mentioned above the most important enzyme on Earth?

    19) define the limiting factor.

    20) how does light intensity affect the concentration of GP and TP.

    21) what is the apparatus used to measure the rate of photosynthesis by collecting and measuring the volume of oxygen produced called?

    you have 25min to answer all questions if possible!
    Aututophs: Organisms that produce their own food , heterotrophs organisms which depend on autotrophs(or any other organism) for food.

    Photosynthesis basiaclly consists of two stages light depen and independent.
    Choloplast consists of two membranes enveloped. Fluid filled sac are called thylakoid and a whole stack of them is grana.The unusal setup of cholophyll molecul(clusters) is called a photosystem , and within choloplast are accessory and primary photosynthetic pigments.
    These pigments abosrb certain wavelengths of light and not all, primary ones absorb certain wavelength to trasnport this energy to make ATP and red. nad while accessory ones absorb UV wavelengths and trasnport some of the energy to primary ones.

    No idea. on peaks ones although clorophyl a absorbs larger wavelength.
    I dont think so , i believe it needs to be shorter wavelength.(for caretenoid)

    In non-cyclic photophosrylation water has a natural tendency to stay in the form: 4h20 => 4H+ + 4E + 202

    The electrons go into PS2 to replace them, H+ ions help to produce red.nad.
    O2 given out
    Electro acceptors are part of electron chain, in choloplast they produce atp by photophoplrylation that is a higher energy emitted electron from reaction centre gives them the energy to make ATP.

    CO2 joins with Rubp by the help of Rubisco to make an unstable 6 carbon compound which breaks down into 2 3-gp in light independent reaction.
    I wish i woke earlier grr, i think i better get on bit with book .. i would have answered all but i just got this feeling to read bit .
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    Between when does the exam start? 1.15 or 130
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    1) Autotrophs -are organisms that can use light energy or chemical energy to synthesis inorganic molecules to produce glucose.
    heterotrophs - are organisms that can ingest and digest organic molecules in photosynthesis to release energy.

    2) 2 stages

    3) adaptations of chloroplasts:

    stacks of granum - gives a large surface area for maximum absorption of light.
    Numerous Enzymes in the stroma - which are needed in the calvin cycle.

    4) these are pigments that absorb light energy and each pigments absorb at differentl wavelengths of light.

    5) Without photosynthetic pigments energy is not captured and so the light depedent cannot proceeed and neither does the calvin cycle.

    6) Photosystem 1=700nm and photosystem 2=680nm

    7) they are able to absorb wavelenghts of light not absorbed by photosystem 1 and 2

    8) Yes.

    9) Non-cyclic phophorylation

    - light strikes a chlorophyll molecule in photosystem 2 and a pair of electrons are excited.
    - these pair of electrons are captured by electron acceptors in the thylakoid membrane and carried along a series of electron carriers.
    - The energy released here is used to synthesis ATP.
    - Light has also struck a chlorophyll molecule in photosystem 1 and a pair of electrons are excited.
    - these electrons, along with protons(produced at photosystem 2 by photolysis of water), join NADP, which becomes reduced NADP.
    - electrons from photolysed water replaces those electrons lost by oxdised photosystem 2.
    - Protons from photolysed water take part in chemiomosis to make ATP and are then captured by NADP, in the stroma. They will be used in calvin cycle.

    In cyclic phosphorylation only small amounts ATP is produced and no photolysis of water nor generation of NADP produced.

    12) these are chemicals that accept electrons.

    13) ATP, reduced nadp and protons.

    ATP used to provide energy, educed nadp used to reduce GP to TP and protons take part in chemiomosis.

    14)
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    GOod luck everyone! gotta go too
    I hope that everyone who has participated here on this thread
    all get high grades!

    BYEEEEE EVERYONE! DON'T PANIC WHEN YOU SEE A HARD QUESTIOn just think back of what we've discussed on this thread.

    I love you all! with you guys i've learned alot in such a short span of time.
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    GOod luck everyone! gotta go too
    Same to you bro.
 
 
 
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