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    Seeing as the module is called ‘Roosevelt’s America’ (bizarrely) I’ll start with the Roosevelt part.

    An overview: Roosevelt was elected in November 1932, then followed the lame duck months in which Roosevelt did nothing , but Hoover continued to try to help with the Depression with Public Works and increased Government spending. On March 4th 1933, Roosevelt was inaugurated and as such, the lame duck months ended and the (frantic) 100 days began. The 100 days saw the start of the New Deal, from the first three major acts (The Emergency Banking Act, the Economy Act, the Beer Act) to the set up of alphabet agencies like the AAA and TVA. In 1935, problems came. There was growing opposition to Roosevelt, some thought him dictatorial whilst others thought that his policies did not go far enough. Major opposition was from the Supreme Court who found 11 of the 16 alphabet agencies unconstitutional. The main three were the TVA, the AAA (noted in the Butler v the USA et al case) and the NRA (noted in the ‘sick chickens’ case). A Second New Deal started in which Roosevelt built towards the next election in 1936. Some would say that this expanded on the First New Deal, others would contest this and say that this was new. By 1939 though, Roosevelt had not achieved the true ‘relief, recovery, and reform’ that he had promised, and it was not until 1941 with entrance into WWII that America really recovered.

    They’re rushed, and from my head to test my revision, so I apologise for any mistakes - they’ll be changed as I check through my notes. More in depth notes to follow!
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    Franklin Delano Roosevelt

    Things to remember:
    He had political experience, having been elected to the New York State Senate in 1910, he progressed through politics and despite a short disillusionment following failure at the 1920 election (in which he ran as James Cox’s Vice President) returned to politics in 1924. In 1928 he became Governor of New York State which led to him laying the foundations of his future policies - he was one of the only Governors to take Hoover’s offer of money to use in public works schemes. In 1931 with the Depression serious, he set up an effective system of relief with Harry Hopkins as his advisor - he was the first Governor to do this.

    1932 election Campaign
    Points in Roosevelt’s favour:
    Fireside chats
    Evidence from time in New York
    Promised to end Prohibition!
    Illness - polio contracted August 1921
    The (perceived) failures of Hoover and the Republicans

    Points against Roosevelt:
    His policies were (even at this stage) somewhat ad hoc - he attempted to be all things to everybody
    He contradicted himself in speeches - giving the answer to a question that the audience wanted at that time, and adjusting it for a different audience just days later

    Result: Roosevelt won by around 7 million votes (approx. 22.5-15.5), a landslide victory, but it must be noted that Hoover did still have notable support.
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    Roosevelt in power
    March - June 1933, first 100 days in office, 14 major acts passed , used the Trading with the Enemy Act to work fast

    Reform of banking Could be seen as REFORM AND RECOVERY
    Emergency Banking Act - March 1933 - national bank holiday for three days, investigate all banks threatened with collapse, only those stable enough to survive were reopened. This was supported by the RFC (link to Hoover) which took over bank debts. To gain public support, Roosevelt used his first national ‘fireside chat’.
    Aim: to restore confidence in the banking system
    Effect: saved US banking
    Raymond Moley of the Brains Trust claimed that FDR has saved capitalism in just 8 days.

    Glass-Steagall Act, June 1933
    Prevented commercial banks from taking part in investment banking - a major cause of bank collapse following the Wall Street Crash
    Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) which guaranteed all bank deposits up to $5000

    Between them, stabilised the banks. Division between state and federal banking remained but in Roosevelt’s first two terms (1933-41) less bank closures than any other US administration. For the first time in almost 60 years, no national banks collapsed in 1936. A success.

    I'm wasting my time, aren't I? Nobody's even doing this module, are they?
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Updated: June 12, 2005
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