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    Nature-Nurture

    My teachers only covered three debates out of the whole issues and debates section; she covered Free vs. Determinism, Psychology as a science and Reductionism. But she left out Nature-Nurture, is there any point covering this myself as an extra or I should I just really focus on the three that’s she’s taught in a lot of detail, which may will mean I only have the choice to answer 1 question in this section.
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    this for A2.... if so i cant help you much, except to say that the teachers probally know what they are doing/teaching you :rolleyes:
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    Learn those three in a lot of detail,the likelihood of an easy question on nature-nurture and difficult ones for those is very unlikely.

    If you do decide you want revision notes for it though,do PM me and I'll send you some!
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    Explain what is meant by the nature nurture debate (5mks)

    The nature nurture debate has existed for a long time. The nature side believes that our behaviours are inherited and we develop because of our pre-determined genes. The nurture side of the debate is influenced by our surrounding environment that determines our behaviour. Supporters of the nurture view are known as empirists and the nature supporters are known as nativists.

    Discuss psychology in terms of the nature nurture debate (25mks)

    The nature nurture debate has existed for along time and much of psychological research has contributed to it. Two main theories of perception presented are of Gibson’s direct theory and Gregory’s constructivist theory which represents the debate of nature nurture.

    Gibson argued that perception is entirely innate because the sensory rich information for perception to take place without cognitive input. Gregory suggested that sensory input relies on expectations which is derived from experience to complete the perceptual process thus supporting Nurturist view. Gregory’s views have been criticised because it is based on studies of visual illusions, which are ambiguous and unrepresentative of all sensory data. There are several studies into visual perception which have found, dorsal stream – processing bottom up data driving processing and the other is the ventral stream related to top down experience driven perception.

    Research into visual deprivation by Blackmore and Cooper found kittens developed deprivation when deprived of horizontal or vertical visual experience for 5 months could no longer see lines of that particular orientation. Nurture the experience had affected the nature of the brain.

    Twin adoption studies suggest that a large part of the variation in IQ is caused by genetic factors. Gene mapping studies such as by Charley have identified individual genes associated with high IQs supporting a nativtist perspective. There is a nature fact that IQs all over the world have increased by 20 points over 30 years suggested by Flynn. Adoption studies such as the Colorado adoption project suggest intelligence is caused by nature. This is a longitudinal study of 245 children separated from their biological mother/father at birth and then adopted in the first month of life, matched to non adopted children and parents. The adopted children become more like their biological parents rather then their adoptive parents. This suggests cognitive ability is due to genetic factors and environment did not count much.

    Studies of parents and adopted children indicate zero correlation in intellectual ability by the time children reach adulthood. However, correlation studies do not prove cause and effect as there may be a third factor. This supports findings from Texas adoption studies which found IQ correlation between unrelated siblings was 0.26 at 8 years but zero at 18. However, family environment affects IQ in an early life but as children grew up they seek out experiences and environment that suite their genes, explaining why genetically similar individuals become alike. This suggests the relationship between genes and IQ is not straight forward. Also adopting a nature approach ignores – genes environment and other interactions.

    Plomin et al studied 50 children in the US whose aptitude test scores were equivalent to an IQ of 160 by comparing their DNA with children of average IQ. A specific gene IGFZR was found common in children with a very high IQ then those with average IQs thus suggesting nature. Plomin’s evidence suggests that a gene for intelligence has been located. However, no common genetic factors were found in all participants.

    Even if gene for intelligence has been found the effects are not predictable. Research on cloning suggests that brains are very complex and if they were to be reproduced, they would only produce unique brains.

    Gibson’s theory suggests that perception is largely innate because it is a question of what is out there rather than using cognitive input. Johanson demonstrates biological motion a nature view on perception. Infants’ studies support Gibson’s theory. Frantz demonstrated and found babies appear to have an innate preference of faces. Babies as young as 4 days old showed a preference for semantic faces rather than jumbled up faces suggesting a face rather than a complex pattern was preferred. However, there were several confounding variables. Semantic faces were symmetrical where as jumbled faces were not and the faces were round compared to computer patterns.

    Further research found that babies prefer patterns suggesting a nurture argument.Gibson and Walk found that 1 day olds and 2 weeks old would not cross the deep side of a visual difference. Rats were then used that were raised in the dark and therefore had no visual perception behaved in the same way as normal rats when placed on the visual cliff. However, we cannot generalise from studies of non human animals to human behaviour but the findings are confirmed with research into infants. Overall psychological research into the nature nurture debate seems to show evidence for both sides so it possible they interact.

    Practice Essay Rope Learn This & u shouls Ace it Providing it comes up HAS ANYBODY GOT ANY PREDICTIONS FOR WHAT MAY COME UP
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    Nature- nuture is the same as free will and determinism!

    Nature, is an innate feature, ur born with it, so it is determined, and nutured behaviour arises from observation and environmental influences so is free will. I think you could adapt it in the exam if u needed to, depending on the kinds of info you've learnt for that debate
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    we done a truck load of nurture nature in the gender topic... and the growing up bit
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    Thanks for the help, I dont have much time I have all my A2 exams next week so I think ill just stick to the 3 even if it does mean does i may not have a choice of 2.
 
 
 
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