Turn on thread page Beta
    • Thread Starter

    has anyone got any notes for relationships and cognitive development atall??
    would be grateful if anyone had any to share

    thanks, vicky x

    Don't do relationships but here's some notes on Cognitive Development, hope they help!

    Hugs Kisses & Luv Sweetie

    - The Study of the child as a thinker
    - It concerns the mental changes that occur during the individuals lifetime

    Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development
    All babies are born with a set of basic reflexes and a set of innate schema
    Cognitive development results from
    Maturation - effect of ageing and the environment.
    Piaget suggested 2 ways in which children learn and develop more complex schema
    - Assimilation – when a child learns something that readily slots into their existing schema
    - Accommodation – the process of changing the existing schemas when new information cannot be assimilated
    If existing schemas are inadequate to cope with new situations then Disequilibrium exists, to restore equilibrium the existing schema must accommodate new information

    Stages of Cognitive development
    Children at similar ages made similar errors, Piaget suggested cognitive development happened in Stages

    1) Sensorimotor stage 0-2 years
    Knowledge is limited to what they can experience through their senses and their attempts to co-ordinate this new knowledge with what they can do
    Object Permanence occurs in this stage the realisation that objects have a permanent existence when they are out of sight
    û Piaget underestimated the abilities of infants – OP is present earlier than he suggested

    2) Pre operational Stage 2-7 years
    Child is unable to use operations logical mental rules so thought is guided by how things look not logical principles
    Animism – gives natural objects such as the sun feelings
    Artificialism – natural features have been designed by humans why is the sky blue
    Seriation – cant put things into order
    Thinking is characterised by Egocentrism they can only see the world from their own point of view – Piaget's 3 mountain experiment
    As the child enters the later stage 4- 7 years show less egocentrism but still don’t think logically.
    Show little signs of probability an transitive Inference – if stick A is longer than stick b and stick b is longer than stick C is A longer than C
    Centration – can only focus on one thing like colour not colour and size
    Conservation and reversibility – beaker experiment
    X Piaget underestimated cognitive abilities at this stage children can show understanding of conservation
    X Piaget’s experiments were badly designed

    3) Concrete Operations Stage 7–11 years
    Start to think logically, no longer egocentric, overcome centration etc. but they still only deal with the concrete world not hypothetical ideas.
    X Ignored social and cultural context in which cognitive development takes place

    4) Formal Operational Stage 11+ years
    Can think scientifically, use abstract logical reasoning, make hypothesis and test them scientifically and reach conclusions
    Pendulum experiment would devise a plan to investigate systematically all the possibilities – change one variable and keep others constant
    X Exaggerated role of logical reasoning -Many problems faced by adults cannot be solved logically
    X Some may not reach this stage until much later
    X Overestimated abilities of young people due to the sample he used

    Overall Evaluation on Piaget
    First person to detail cognitive development
    His theories have influenced how children ate educated
    X Used small sample sizes – often his own children
    X Experiments wee difficult to replicate and were open to interviewer bias
    X Experiments failed to produce valid data
    X His concepts are difficult to operationalise – define & measure
    X All children are different – cultural differences
    X Underestimates the role of emotion and social factors in cognitive development
    X Underestimated role of language and social interaction
    X Ignored the role of practice

    Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development
    A child learns through social interaction and communication with others that have the knowledge and skills they lack
    Social factors enable child to transform elementary functions into higher functioning

    1) Vague Syncretic Stage
    Children learn by trial and error without understanding the concepts involved
    2) Complexes Stage
    Some appropriate strategies are used but the main attributes aren’t identified
    3) Potential concept Stage
    One attribute only – tall can be dealt with at a time
    4) Mature Concept Stage
    Can deal with several attributes simultaneously. Use of systematic strategies

    - Social interaction plays a fundamental role in cognitive development, each aspect of a child’s cognitive development appearing first as a social level and then an individual one
    - Though culture children acquire their knowledge and the processes of their thinking
    - Scaffolding – guidance in problem solving by an elder. Involves the instructor engaging the child’s interest, simplifying tasks, maintaining motivation, and demonstrating explaining the solution to the child. By providing scaffolding the task becomes more familiar to the child and eventually the child can perform the task without any need for scaffolding

    Language is the most important way in which adults transmit knowledge. Emphasised the development of language and its significance in thought development
    - 0-2 years language & thought are separate functions
    - 2+ years child uses language to help in problem solving, egocentric speech
    - 7+years self talk becomes silent although it continues as a means of developing and reflecting on problems
    Zone of Proximal Development
    “What a child can do in co-operation today, he can do alone tomorrow”
    ZPD -The gap between what a child can do alone and what they can do with an instructor. - Scaffolding

    Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Theory
    Right to recognise importance of language and help from instructor in a child’s development
    Emphasis on culture supported by evidence of cultural variations
    X Little experimental evidence
    X Exaggerated the importance of the social environment
    X Not true that learning is fairly easy if children receive appropriate help
    • Thread Starter

    thanks alot thats really helpful! x
The home of Results and Clearing


people online now


students helped last year

University open days

  1. Keele University
    General Open Day Undergraduate
    Sun, 19 Aug '18
  2. University of Melbourne
    Open Day Undergraduate
    Sun, 19 Aug '18
  3. Sheffield Hallam University
    City Campus Undergraduate
    Tue, 21 Aug '18
A-level students - how do you feel about your results?

The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE

Write a reply...
Reputation gems: You get these gems as you gain rep from other members for making good contributions and giving helpful advice.