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    • Thread Starter

    Does anyone else have this?

    If so..what topics do we need to revise? I need to find more info on adaption..


    The syllabus is the most helpful thing for this - It's all broken down into bullet points, and you can look at each topic seperately. I'm doing Extension Block A, but you could be doing Extension Block B - I don't know... Below is the chunk of the syllabus that we need to know on top of anything else from the syllabus...

    A.1 Human Physiology

    This block explores in more detail some of the aspects of human physiology
    studied in the earlier core blocks. It also looks at areas of the circulatory and
    nervous systems not studied before. These include work concerning blood
    pressure and the brain.

    Feeding and digestion

    1 Explain why fat, protein, digestible carbohydrate, fibre, calcium, iron, and
    vitamins A, C and D are important in the diet.

    2 Realise what is meant by a balanced diet and the importance of ensuring
    balance in a vegetarian diet.

    3 Describe how diet can cause health problems, including:

    • excess sugar as a cause of dental decay
    • excess animal fat associated with coronary heart disease.

    4 Relate diet to different body requirements, including childhood, adolescence
    and pregnancy.

    Blood and the circulation

    5 Realise that the heart rate responds to:

    • changes in blood pressure (effected by sodium chloride intake)
    • changes in carbon dioxide levels in the blood (caused by exercise).

    6 Recognise that alterations in heart rate are brought about by nerves or
    hormones such as adrenaline.

    7 Realise the importance of maintaining a constant blood pressure with
    reference to kidney function and the dangers of strokes.

    8 Describe and explain the changes which occur in blood pressure and pulse
    during and after exercise.


    9 Describe the effects of adrenaline on the respiratory and circulatory systems.

    10 Explain how the effects of adrenaline prepare the body for action.


    11 Explain how the structure of the kidney tubule is related to filtration of the
    blood and the formation of urine, including:

    • a filter unit
    • a region of selective reabsorption
    • a region of salt and water regulation.

    12 Explain the principle of a dialysis machine and how in a patient with kidney
    failure it removes urea and maintains levels of sodium and glucose in the
    blood .

    Nervous System

    13 Follow the pathway of nervous impulses in a reflex arc into and out of the
    spinal cord to include:

    • sensory, relay and motor neurone
    • dorsal root, grey matter, ventral root.

    14 Give an example of a conditioned reflex and explain how it differs from a
    simple reflex.

    15 Locate the main regions of the brain to include the cerebrum, cerebellum and

    16 Outline the function of areas of the brain, limited to:
    • cerebrum, responsible for receiving sensory information, conscious
    thought and initiating a voluntary response
    • cerebellum for control of balance
    • medulla, controlling reflex actions such as heart rate and breathing rate.


    17 Realise that skeletal muscles are the main effectors in the human body and
    that they contract due to impulses in motor neurones.

    A.2 Diversity and Adaptation

    Classification of living organisms is looked at in greater detail. The work of
    John Ray and Carl Linnaeus is considered. The range of organisms
    previously studied is expanded along with their adaptations to their particular
    environment. Both animal and plant examples are included.

    Principles of classification

    1 Define the term species.

    2 Explain the difference between a natural and an artificial system of

    3 Outline the work of John Ray and Carl Linnaeus in developing a modern
    classification system.

    4 Recognise and use the binomial system as a basis for naming species.

    5 Describe the characteristics that are used to place organisms into the animal
    or plant kingdoms.

    Diversity and adaptation in the animal kingdom

    6 Use the characteristics of amphibians and reptiles to explain how reptiles are
    better adapted to a terrestrial life.

    7 Recognise by investigation that blowfly larvae or woodlice move to more
    favourable environments in response to the stimuli of light and humidity

    8 Explain how metamorphosis in the blowfly enables exploitation of different
    food supplies/different habitats during the animal's life history.

    9 Explain how the structure of the gills of a fish allows efficient gaseous
    exchange in water.

    10 Explain how the methods of gaseous exchange used by amphibians and fish
    restrict them to their habitats.

    Diversity and adaptation in the plant kingdom

    11 Explain how a cactus is adapted to arid conditions (reduced surface
    area/volume ratio, reduction in transpiration, reduced leaves but need for
    photosynthesis, storage of water).

    12 Describe how a deadnettle or similar flower is adapted for pollination by

    A.3 Microbes and Food

    The place microbes have in our food supply today is the emphasis of this
    block. It explores the avenue of food spoilage and how it can be avoided.
    These include the traditional ways and new methods. The use made of micro-
    organisms in food manufacture is studied in some detail. The principles of
    genetically engineered enzymes is included along with the social and ethical
    issues surrounding genetic engineering in relation to food production.

    1 Realise that micro-organisms can cause food to go bad and can cause food

    2 Explain the factors which influence the rate of grow micro-organisms.

    3 Recognise and use the fact that hygienic practices in the storage, handling and cooking of food reduce the chances of food poisoning.

    4 Explain the need for sterile conditions when growing and handling cultures of

    5 Explain the principle of food preservation used in:

    • canning
    • freezing
    • drying
    • ultra heat treatment.

    6 Discuss arguments for and against food preservation by:

    • irradiation
    • chemical preservatives.

    7 Explain how high solute concentrations, resulting in a decrease in water
    potential, are used as a basis for food preservation.

    8 Know that different types of micro-organisms are involved in the production

    • yoghurt
    • bread
    • alcohol
    • vinegar
    • single cell protein.

    9 Explain the value of fungal single cell protein (mycoprotein) as a food
    source, in terms of nutrition and economics.

    10 Explain the characteristics of enzymes to include:

    • how pH and temperature affect the activity
    • an explanation of the substrate-specific action of enzymes in terms of a
    'lock-and-key' model.

    11 Describe the formation of recombinant DNA to include:

    • obtaining the required gene
    • cloning the gene
    • inserting the gene into the host DNA
    • use of vectors.

    12 Describe the genetic engineering principles used in the production of
    enzymes for use in food manufacture.

    13 Discuss the social and ethical issues of genetic engineering in relation to the
    production of food.

    A.4 Microbes and disease

    Both plant and animal diseases are considered in this block. Common
    diseases that are affecting the populations are investigated. The development
    of antibiotics, including the work of Fleming, Florey and Chain is followed
    by work on immunisation.

    Disease causing agents

    1 Recognise the difference between infectious and non-infectious diseases,
    giving examples of each and outline how infectious diseases may be

    2 Describe the main features of bacteria (cell wall, no nucleus) and fungi
    (mycelium of hyphae, no chlorophyll, spores).

    3 Explain how bacteria reproduce by splitting into two (forming colonies or
    causing cloudiness in a liquid).

    4 Realise that viruses are smaller than bacteria, are non-living and consist of
    genetic material surrounded by a protective coat.

    5 Describe how a virus reproduces by infecting a living cell.

    6 Recognise examples of human diseases caused by:

    • viruses (e.g. common cold)
    • fungi (e.g. athlete's foot)
    • bacteria (e.g. whooping cough , tetanus).

    7 Describe and discuss the transmission of HIV, the control of its spread and
    the symptoms of AIDS.

    8 Explain how simple hygiene can reduce the spread of the common cold and
    athlete's foot.

    9 Explain how people can become infected with Toxocara, tapeworm and
    headlice, and how they can avoid becoming infected.

    10 Explain the meaning of the terms parasite and pathogen.


    11 Recognise that antibiotics are medicines which kill or slow down the growth
    of infectious bacteria, but are generally ineffective against viruses.

    12 Explain the need for the careful use of antibiotics to prevent the evolution of
    resistant strains of bacteria.

    13 Explain the need for the continuing development of new drugs and
    techniques to counter the evolution of resistant strains of pathogens.

    14 Describe in outline the work of Fleming, Florey and Chain in the discovery
    and development of penicillin.


    15 Explain that active immunisation is based on the introduction of a mild or
    dead form of the pathogen which results in antibody production.

    16 Explain the difference between an active and passive immunisation.

    17 Discuss the benefits and risks associated with immunisation.

    18 Explain the reasons for the lack of success in producing an effective vaccine
    against the common cold.

    19 Describe in outline the development of vaccinations, limited to:
    • Edward Jenner.s work with smallpox
    • Louis Pasteur's development of a vaccine against rabies.

    Plants and disease

    20 Describe one example of an infectious disease of plants.

    21 Explain that plant diseases may be controlled by:

    • selective breeding
    • chemical treatment.
    • crop rotation.
    • Thread Starter

    Wow - thankyou so much!!!!!! That was a great help!

    yea its from the ocr website - the syllabus and the text book r the best way to revise Extension block A cos revision guides r rubbish
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