Here's my notes on Hitler's consolodation of Power between 1933-34, which was a type A question before. I got full marks on a practice on this.
Anyways, please add your condensed notes to this thread. I desperately need some notes on Opposition and Nazi popularity/ role of the party!
Hitler’s Consolidation of Power: Jan 1933 - Aug 1934
Hitler ensured his consolidation of power using a combination of several key factors:
LEGALITY; TERROR and INTIMIDATION; CONCESSIONS; HITLER’S OWN PERSONALITY, SKILLS OF PERSUASSION AND OPPURTUNITISM; AND THE POLICY OF GLEICHSCHALTUNG.
- LEGAL PROCEEDURE THE MOST IMPORTANT
Feb 28, 1933: Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of the Nation and the State
Issued by Hindeburg using Article 48. Suspended constitutional civil rights, resulted in:
Imprisonment without trial. Secret Police could hold people indefinitely in protective custody. Used to repress KPD.
March 13, 1933: Control of Media
Goebells appointed head of new Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.
March 24, 1933: Enabling Act
Passed with 441 v 94 majority (only SPD voted against, KPD banned; Centre supported it after H’ made promises). Gave Hitler power to pass decrees without President’s involvement. Terror and Intimidation helped him pass this law!
July 14, 1933: Law against the Formation of New Parties
Germany effectively becomes a One-Party State.
January, 1934: Law for the Reconstruction of the State
Created new Reich Governors to control states. Dissolved state assemblies.
August 1934: Office of the Fuhrer
Merges the offices of President and Chancellor. Hitler becomes Dictator!
- TERROR AND INTIMIDATION
Used SA to intimidate voters. Example- In assembly on Enabling Act, the SA surround the Opera House.
July 1933: Concordat
Signed between Nazi’s and Pope. Several concessions given to ensure Church would ban all political activity and give approval to Nazis.
Concession to Elites/ Big business
Eliminated threat of left-wing political party and reduced workers powers by banning TU’s and creating DAF.
Concessions to the Army
Most important concessions. Army wanted assurances from Hitler that they were the only Military force of German. Rohm and SA want to be new army. Absorbed SA into Army and made them swear of of allegiance in August 1934.
Policy of sub-ordinating all important government and non-government institutions nder Nazi control. Extends their reaches of influence and reduces outside interference. Gleichschaltung, coupled with Policing network made any organised resistance almost impossible.
- Creates DAF in May 1933.
- The Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.
- HITLER’S OWN PERSONALITY AND PERSUASION
Example of H’ opportunism:
A Week before election day, Reichstag burnt to ground. Communist caught inside. H’ blames communists for arson, accuses them of being a terror organization. Uses all this to justify actions of SA and persuades Hindenburg to issue Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of the Nation and State (Feb, 1933). This suspended civil rights and was used to repress opposition.
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A2 OCR NAZI GERMANY NOTES (everyone add theirs!)... watch
- Thread Starter
- 18-06-2005 13:12