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    • Thread Starter

    i dont understand protein synthesis.. can some1 help out?

    In what sense? Mycoprotein, using microbes, or Human synthesis of protein from Amino Acids?

    as in transcription and translation?

    Transcription - The process of copying the code in DNA to form messenger RNA.
    Enzyme catalyses a reaction that makes the DNA of a gene untwist.
    Another enzyme, RNA polymerase then assembles the RNA nucleotides along the sense strand of the DNA. The RNA polymerase moves along the sense strand producing a single stranded molecule of mRNA, containing the complementary base pairs to the DNA, with Uracil replacing Thymine. The mRNA detaches from the DNA and passed out of the nucleus through the nuclear pores and into the Endoplasmic Reticulum. mRNA attaches onto the ribosomes on the Endoplasmic Reticulum. Ribosomes have a specially shaped ‘pocket’ that is like the active site of an enzyme. The mRNA molecule fits into the pocket and the process of translation begins (protein synthesis).

    Translation - is when the code on the mRNA is used to assemble the amino acids of the protein in the correct order

    The mRNA fits onto the ribosome at the start codon.
    Transfer RNA (tRNA) attaches to the start codon via the complementary triplet of bases on the bottom of the tRNA called the anti-codon. The tRNA is carrying a specific amino acid. A second tRNA molecule attaches to the second complementary codon carrying another specific amino acid.
    A peptide bond forms between the two amino acids and the mRNA molecule moves along the ribosome, freeing the first tRNA minus the amino acid, (this can then go and attach to another specific amino acid). Energy from ATP is needed for this reaction to occur.
    The second tRNA molecule moves along to take the place of the freed tRNA molecule.
    The next codon becomes available to bind a tRNA molecule carrying the next amino acid. This is added to the growing polypeptide chain. When the ribosome reaches the stop codon, the protein is complete
    • Thread Starter

    yea the translation stuff, but i need it like dumbed down to gcse level lol

    I haven't done this work but if you Google the words, translation, transcription and GCSE, you get sites such as this one:

    • Thread Starter


    and btw does ne1 no the difference between AI and IVF, and what a surragate mother is ? lol

    wat boards u guys going this. no1 rly mention OCR bio exam 2moro

    Artificial insemination is where the sperm gets placed into the female body, ie: by injection, whereas in In-vitro fertilisation, the fertilisation happens in the 'glass' - test tube, then gets put into the female body.
    Surrogacy is where another woman will carry the baby for another couple due to infertility problems.
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