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    Plz can anyone explain why transition metal ions are coloured in a simple way as the book is making it tooo confusing......thanx and also most ligands which maybe tested in edexcel will either be Ammonia,Water or Chloride Ions?? they r most common...

    It's usually always ammonia. Learn the ammonia added to hexaaquacopperII thing. always a good one to know.

    Transition metals have incomplete 3d subshells - looks at the middle section of the period table - this covers Sc to Zn
    The 5 suborbitals are split into a 3 and a 2, these 2 are slightly higher energy states than the 3. Each sub orbital can fit two electrons in.
    White light is shone through a solution of transition metal ions. Electrons are excited from one of the lower 3 suborbitals to one of the higher 2 suborbitals. The energy has been absorbed. The energy change is quantised (a specific change) and "E=hf", so the frequency can be found.
    White light is a mixtureof all frequencies of visible light. If some of these frequencies are absorbed in this electron exciting way, the rest can pass through and be seen. It is this mixture of unabsorbed frequencies which gives the resultant colour.

    E: change in energy
    h: Planck constant
    f: frequency


    c: speed of light, 3x10^8m/s
    l: wavelength

    Hope this helps
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