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    I stole this list of essay questions from a post by Magicgate *props*

    ones this colour have been done


    1. The roles of water in the lives of organisms. (JAN 96)
    2. Genetic variation and speciation. (JAN 96)
    3. The effects of light on flowering plants [B] (JUN 96)
    4. Support and movement in animals [B,H] (JUN 96)
    5. The anatomy and mode of life of Homo erectus [H] (JUN 96)
    6. Applications and implications of gene technology (JAN 97)
    7. Roles of pigments in living organisms (JAN 97)
    8. Control of the internal environment in living organisms (JUN 97)
    9. Atmospheric pollution (JUN 97)
    10. The role of enzymes in the control of metabolic pathways (JAN 98)
    11. Gas exchange in animals and flowering plants [B] (JAN 98)
    12. Lipids in living organisms (JUN 98)
    13. Chemical coordination in plants and animals [B] (JUN 98)
    14. Circadian rhythms in the lives of humans [H] (JUN 98)
    15. The movement of molecules and ions through membranes (JAN 99)
    16. The chemical and biological control of insect pests [B] (JAN 99)
    17. The control of fertility in humans [H] (JAN 99)
    18. Water pollution (JUN 99)
    19. Transport systems in mammals and flowering plants [B] / humans [H] (JUN 99)
    20. ATP and its roles in living organisms [B] / humans [H] (JAN 00)
    21. Production and elimination of waste products in animals [B] / humans [H] (JAN 00)
    22. The role of water in the lives of organisms (JUN 00)
    23. The factors affecting the growth and size of populations (JUN 00)
    24. The functions of proteins in plants and animals (JAN 00)
    25. Natural selection and the effects of environmental change (JAN 00)

    So, everyone pick a number and plan it!
    say which one you're doing.
    We can get all these covered tonight, or at least most of them.
    Don't be selfish and steal the plans if you haven't contributed :p:

    ready steady, go!
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    can i do 22?

    start easy lol
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    I've got 12




    edit: evidently trhis idea went down like a lead balloon!!
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    In no particually order things i would at least mention:

    Water - H20 - most of the human body is water - liquid at room temperture.

    Di polar nature - due to covalent bonding of the H and O - uneven share of electrons therefore O is negative H postive.

    Hydrogen bonding - hydrogen atoms attracted to the elctro negative O in another water molecule - NO electrons shared like covalent. Weak bonds - but creates a strong latice structure.

    water is 'sticky' cohesion - water tension - this means dense things eg bugs can live on it. Enables columes of water to be maintained in the xylem of plants ?! sorry dont do plant bio

    Water is a solvent - things that are polar eg Na+ Cl- are pulled apart by electro attraction.broken up dissolves Things in solution transported better into cells

    High heat capacity - must absorb lot of energy to raise in temp - aquatic lifewont die
    Large latent heat vapourisation - lot of energy to go from liquid to gas

    large fussion - water at 0°c must lose lot of energy to make ice.

    when ice expands - less dence - floats - on ponds forms an insulating layer - helps fish things.

    water used or released in metabolic reactions therefore a metabolite - condesation/hydrolysis. Released when polyssacharides, lipids and proteins made also during aerobic respiration. Used in photosyntheis and digestion


    Thought id also mention - protection eg pregnant mothers in the amniotic cavity supports baby. Its in our tears which help our eyes. Its in synovial joints as lubrication
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    Roles of lipids in the lives of organisms
    • Fats/oils/waxes, formed from condensation reaction between fatty acids and glycerol
    • E.g. olive oil- oleic acid is fatty acid.. oils form the food store in many seeds- e.g. sunflowers, and fruits, e.g. palm and olive
    • Fatty acids can be broken down and oxidised, releases energy for cell metabolism, or theyu can be built up into triglycerides and used as an energy store, or converted to phospholidipids for use in the CSM
    • Phospholipids are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, but one fatty acid chain is replaced by a polar phosphate group. Polar group is sol in water, fatty acid chains are not
    • Phospholipids bilayer/lipid bilayer- mention roles of it, controlling entrance of substances etc
    • Cholesterol- another lipid stabilises the csm
    • Myelin sheath on axons is mainly lipid- regions of high electrical resistance
    • Fatty acids can be used as an alternative to glucose in resp
    • Tryglycerides- mosty common lipids in living orgs- release two times as much energy as carbs, but need twice as much O2 to do so. Used for energy stores- its compact and insol, and can be sotred at high conc in cells in droplets
    • Waxes- esters of fatty acids and long chain OHs, animals- waxes in fur, skin, feathers, on outer cuticle in insects. Used for waterproofing- epidermis on leaves fruit and seeds prevents evap and entrance of water.
    • Fats offer protection- eg adipose tissue by the kidneys- stearic acids-saturated. Also large fat cells beneath skin and around organs are an energy store and protect organs, and offer insulation
    • Fats are good for animals living in dry conditions, because oxidation of fat gives a relatively large amount of water- referred to as metabolic water. More water is released on oxidation than oxidation of carbs
    • Steroid hormones related to lipids, cholesterol important in synthesis of steroid hormones, eg oest and progest. Steroid hormones lipid soluble- also mention how they have their effect, eg moving through CSM
    • Buoyancy

    Just about to attempt another one

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    thats the relatively easy ones gone..Hmmm
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    (Original post by purplecrayon)
    thats the relatively easy ones gone..Hmmm
    might attempt pigments
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    8. Control of the internal environment in living organisms

    thats homeostasis right?

    il try that one
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    Muhahaha i take number 20

    The production and role of ATP in living organisms

    ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) = the chemical store of energy used in transduction processes

    Production

    ATP = ADP + PO4- <-- that's a phosphate group

    Two main processes:

    Respiration
    Anaerobic – 2 molecules produced in Glycolysis

    Aerobic – 36 molecules produced by eukaryotic cells (may be more / less in prokaryotes 31-39)
    i.e. Aerobic produces a lot more

    Oxidative Phosphorylation --> produced by passage of electrons through ATP Synthase

    Photosynthesis

    ATP and NADPH2 (<-- P for photosynthesis!!! NADH is respiration, NADPH is photosynthesis) are produced during the light dependent reaction but under normal circumstances then used in the Calvin cycle to form glucose.

    Cyclic Phosphorylation – the electrons are cycled to make more ATP in situations where the plant requires energy instantly

    Role

    In Animals:

    Active transport
    Na+ / K+ pumps in the neurones
    Na+ pump in the loop of Henle
    Absorption of glucose in Small intestine

    Anabolic reactions <-- these are reactions that "build up" molecules - think like anabolic steroids
    Protein synthesis
    Glycogenesis <-- i.e. the making (genesis = when everything was made) of glycogen

    Activation energy
    Glycolysis (uses ATP too)

    Motility
    Rotation of spermatozoon flagella (i.e. sperm need to wiggle!!)
    Contraction of spindle fibres in mitosis / meiosis
    Contraction of cardiac / intercostals muscle cells

    Cyclic AMP --> peptide hormones (no idea what this means... but it's in my notes )

    Plants

    Active transport
    Sucrose / H+ pump in the loading cells in the phloem
    Mineral uptake in the root hair cells (make sure you say RH cell - as they're not actually hairs!!)

    Anabolic reactions
    Calvin Cycle (in photosynthesis)
    Protein synthesis
    Amylogenesis (i.e. the production of starch - remember amylase is the enzyme used to break down starch - amylin, and amylopectin)

    Motility
    Contraction of spindle fibres in meiosis / mitosis

    Microbes

    Active transport
    Anabolic reactions
    Protein synthesis
    Amylogenesis

    Motility
    Rotation of flagella <-- not all microbes have flagella but some do!
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    8. Control of the internal environment in living organisms
    again no particular order..

    Homeostasis - maintain stable envionment - cells function correctly.

    Control our body temperature. If too high proteins therefore enzymes structure effect and work incorrectly. Humans homoiotherms therefore constant temp 37°c - 38°c.

    Hypothalamus - thermoregulation centre detects changes in temp of blood. Thermoreceptors changes on the skin ie external temp.

    If to hot the 'hot centre' in the hypothalamus causes; vasodilation, increase sweating, decrease metabolic rate and hairs to lie flat

    If to cold 'cold centre' cause; vasoconstriction, decrease sweating, increase metabolic rate, shiver babys cant shiver - weird eh?! and hairs stand up.

    Behavioural things too eg drink hot/cold drinks put clothes on/take um off etc

    Water needs to be controlled or effects metabolism/osmosis. Osmoregulation - water and solvent content monitored. The permeabilty of collecting duct influnced by ADH. If blood has not got enough water:

    detected by osmoreceptors in hypothalumus, neurosecretory cells stimulated, more impluses down neuro fibres, posterior pituitary realease ADH, more ADH more water reasorption, therefore water level rises.

    Too much water now :rolleyes: detected osmoreceptors fewer impulses, less ADH you get the idea.

    Glucose monitored - effects cell respiration/osmosis. Too high beta cells in pancrease(?) release insulin therefore absorb gluc, increase metabolic activity etc.

    Too low alpha cells, increase rate glycogenolysis and realease of gluc from liver. fatty acids broken down in respiration not glu.

    Control waste stuff. Deanimation in liver - urea - kidney - ultrafiltration etc to get back good stuff - relate to ADH.

    Negative feedback principles.


    Im a little rough on this so please feel free to add/change
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    5. The anatomy and mode of life of Homo erectus [H]

    doing this one
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    Great work guys! Heres my first contribution:
    2. Genetic variation and speciation:
    DNA structure - how one mutation can totally disrupt the polpeptide formed (unit 1)
    Mutations during mitosis (unit 1)
    Variation in meiosis due to chiasmata formation, crossing over and then random fertilisation in sexual reproduction (unit 2)
    Artifical variation through gene technology (unit 5)
    Speciation - allopatric (geographical) and sympatric (behavioural) (unit 5)
    Point mutations leading to variation (unit 5)
    Directional, stabilising and disruptive variation (unit 5)
    Natural selection (unit 5).
    Sorry if its a bit crap!
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    Kohlstream, would it be ok if you could edit the top post to show which ones have been done?
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    Roles of pigments in living organisms

    resp pigments haemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin, myoglobin (unit 2)
    dissociation curves (unit 2)
    adaptation detection of light by phytochrome pigments in plants (unit 4)
    detection of light by retinal pigments in mamalian eye. (unit 4)
    chlrooplast pigments location, nature of chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, absorption and action spectra for these pigments (unit 5)

    v basic plan- just leafed through syllabus. This actually seems like quite a good essay. I’m going to write a bit more and then edit this post later with it, first I’m going to do some more basic plans.
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    5. The anatomy and mode of life of Homo erectus [H]

    Not an easy one in my opinion but il have a go.

    lived 1.8 - 0.3 million years ago.

    not too tall at only 1.3 - 1.5m weighing at 40 - 75kg

    750 - 1250cm³ brain capacity :p:

    Brow ridge

    Sticky out protuding jaw but smaller teeth then habilis.

    believed to be first upright homo but later proved wrong.

    id mention dating for the sake of it, just that his fossils known that old by potassium argon dating where it decays from potassium 40 to argon 40 with a large half life.

    Erectus had a relatively large brain - indicates potential complex activities. They had some sort of language. They made simple but 'complex' tools (Acheulian) tool culture - for hunting.

    Hunter gathers. Used Fire - cooking and warmth possible protection from wild animals. They were omnivores.

    Larger brain ment larger pelvis for delivery of big headed babies.
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    3. The effects of light on flowering plants [B] (JUN 96)

    Phototropism - plants grow towards the light because of more auxins on side of shoot away from light source. This causes cells on this side of the coleoptile to elongate and multiply at a faster rate than the side facing the light source, so the coleoptile 'bends' towards the light.

    Photosynthesis - light-dependent reactions only. Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation. Maybe a diagram of a chloroplast?

    Phytochrome - exposure to red light in daylight conditions causes P660 to be converted to P720, and exposure to far-red light at night causes the slow conversion of P660 back to P720. Red light causes germination - 'Grands Rapids' lettuce seed experiment.

    Hmm, sorry it's a bit rubbish :s:
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    6. Applications and implications of gene technology

    Protein synthesis and the replication of DNA in gene technology (unit 1)
    Genetic engineering to produce new species or organisms which produce useful substances such as plants which produce their own pesticides (mention the problems with doing this) (unit 5)
    Chymosin production (unit 5)
    Reverse transcriptase and restriction endonucleases in gene technology (unit 5)
    DNA helicase, polymerase and ligase in the tranfer of DNA(unit 1)
    Bacterial plasmids for use in gene technology (unit 5)
    Producing insulin and hormones (unit 4)
    DNA structure (unit 1)
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    15. The movement of molecules and ions through membranes

    doing this one!
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    (Original post by Ellie4)
    3. The effects of light on flowering plants [B] (JUN 96)

    Phototropism - plants grow towards the light because of more auxins on side of shoot away from light source. This causes cells on this side of the coleoptile to elongate and multiply at a faster rate than the side facing the light source, so the coleoptile 'bends' towards the light.

    Photosynthesis - light-dependent reactions only. Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation. Maybe a diagram of a chloroplast?

    Phytochrome - exposure to red light in daylight conditions causes P660 to be converted to P720, and exposure to far-red light at night causes the slow conversion of P660 back to P720. Red light causes germination - 'Grands Rapids' lettuce seed experiment.

    Hmm, sorry it's a bit rubbish :s:
    I would add stuff like
    stomatal opening in the presence of light
    Adaptations to light :confused:
    Accessory and primary pigments
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    (Original post by Ramaya)
    I would add stuff like
    stomatal opening in the presence of light
    Adaptations to light :confused:
    Accessory and primary pigments
    Oh yeah forgot about stomata. Could talk about the K+ pump.uneven thickening of guard cells walls as mechanism to open them.

    How do you mean adaptations to light?
 
 
 
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