Turn on thread page Beta
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Ellie4)
    How do you mean adaptations to light?
    Umm its written on my plan I did at school but I'm not sure why
    I think its things like etiolated plants are adapted to the lack of light by growing taller. And shade 'loving' plants having more carotenoids to get more light.
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Ramaya)
    Umm its written on my plan I did at school but I'm not sure why
    I think its things like etiolated plants are adapted to the lack of light by growing taller. And shade 'loving' plants having more carotenoids to get more light.
    Ah ok
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    What do u thiunk anout a question to do with sexual reproduction and hormones
    ?
    MIGHT COME UP?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    15. The movement of molecules and ions through membranes
    should have chose pest control :rolleyes: but here goes...

    Types of movement
    Diffusion - movement down a concentration gradient. The greater the concentration gradient the faster the movement - no energy - passive

    osmosis - water - high conc to low conc through a permeable membrane - passive

    facilated diffusion -only 1 direction, protein transporters involved - specific - passive

    Active transport - against conc gradient - needs energy - ATP

    Endo/Exco cytosis - bulk movement across a membrane? needs energy. Vesicles - golgi ?!

    Id mention water potential - more water molecules to hit membrane at any 1 time higher the pressure.

    Membranes
    fluid mosaic model - phospholipids - carbos - proteins - channels for polar molecules.

    mostly proteins and lipids.

    Not my fave topic - please add/edit if it needs it
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by najah)
    What do u thiunk anout a question to do with sexual reproduction and hormones
    ?
    MIGHT COME UP?
    I think it will !!

    ive been trying to tell people lol :p:
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by purplecrayon)
    I think it will !!

    ive been trying to tell people lol :p:
    For human bio?
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    15. The movement of molecules and ions through membranes (JAN 99)

    why do you need to transport things in and out of a cell
    structure of a CSM


    Passive transport- facilitated and normal diffusion
    e.g. fats diffusing accross CSM ( do they? I think they can disolve in other fats and diffuse accross)
    e.g. movement of glucose into cells- e.g. in PCT
    factors affecting diffusion
    diffusion in lungs?

    osmosis and water potential, factors affecting it, solute potential etc

    active transport
    Na/K pumps in small intestine for uptake of glucose
    also in kidney

    Endocytosis
    immune response
    happens in amoeba

    exocytosis
    secretory cells- golgi, immune response


    edit: purplecrayon- Id din't see your post before I posted this!
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Ellie4)
    For human bio?
    I dont know :confused:

    do you do reproduction in just biology?
    Offline

    17
    ReputationRep:
    Haha of course we do!!

    Plants reproduce too :p: and life would get confusing without meiosis anyway
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    EDIT: It is on the list sorry - number 24
    The roles of proteins in living organisms

    Digestion of proteins (unit 2)
    Digestive enzymes (unit 2)
    Enzymes (based on tertiary protein structure) (unit 1)
    Haemoglobin and myoglobin (unit 2)
    Hormones - insulin (unit 4)
    Membrane receptors (unit 4)
    Protein structure (primary, secondary (helixes and sheets), tertiary and quarternary (unit 1)
    Protein synthesis (unit 1)
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by purplecrayon)
    I dont know :confused:

    do you do reproduction in just biology?
    Yeah unit 2 I think. Spermatogenesis/oogenesis, hormones and stuff, but I dunno what A2 stuff we'd use =/
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Bekaboo)
    Haha of course we do!!

    Plants reproduce too :p: and life would get confusing without meiosis anyway
    :p: well if it does come up most likely be the third option - one for either biologist / human biologist
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    Circulation of Nitrogen in ecosystems:

    Proteins (unit 1) (well they do contain N) - protein synthesis (unit 1) and digestion (unit 2)
    Deammination to produce ammonia and the urea (unit 4) and possibly its excretion.
    Eutrophication (unit 3)
    N fixing bacteria (e.g. Rhizobium) to put ammonia in the soil (unit 3)
    Denitrification (unit 3)
    Holozoic nutrition (unit 3)
    Thats all I can think of
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    I'm going for a bit, but will try to tackle some plans,. and post them here in a min
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Gas exchange in animals and flowering plants [B] (JAN 98)

    Humans:
    ventilation system (inspiration/expiration mechanisms) controlled by mudulla oblongata
    lungs - alveoli
    haemoglobin (oxy/carbo)
    Respiration

    Protozoa:
    large surface area to volume ratio
    gas exchange on surface

    Plants:
    spongy mesophyll layer
    stomata (opening/closing mechanisms)
    Photosynthesis
    Respiration
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    14. Chemical coordination in animals and plants

    Introduction; hormones (proteins) often used in homeostasis - negative feedback

    How they work
    Released from glands, transported in blood to target organs, bind to specific receptor sites, cause change

    Differences between chemical and nervous coordination (principles of chemical is that they have long lasting effects but take longer to take action)

    Synergism - hormones work together to increase effects
    Antagonistic - hormones work against each other

    ADH
    Released from posterior pituitary gland, causes an increase in water permeability of collecting ducts and DCT, therefore allows the control of blood solute concentration

    Insulin and Glucagon
    Released from islets of langerhans in the pancreas to control blood sugar levels. Insulin from beta cells, stimulates glycogenesis (building up of glucose to form glycogen) mainly in the liver cells, prevents the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, inhibits the release of glucagon. Glucagon from alpha cells has opposite effects.

    Reproductive hormones
    Oestrogen - promotes release of LH (positive feedback), causes thickening of uterus lining
    Progesterone - maintains uterus lining
    LH - stimulates ovulation on day 14
    FSH - stimulates the development of a follicle

    Oxytocin - stimulates contraction of muscles to initiate birth
    Prolactin - stimulates production of milk

    Plant Hormones
    Auxins - promote cell elongation, development of lateral roots / apical buds, synthetic uses of auxins as weedkillers
    Giberellins - promotes growth in dwarf plants, bolting in long day plants, fruit development, seed germination (synergistic with auxin)
    Cytokinins - promote mitosis (in roots and stems)
    Ethene - Promotes abbsiscion and fruit ripening
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    I have a new essay question:

    Compare the events of meiosis and mitosis with any possible errors that may occur.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    24. The functions of proteins in plants and animals (JAN 00)

    Introduction
    -mention different levels of protien structure ie primary, secondary....
    -dictintion between gobular protiens (hydrophobic R-groups point inwards, hydrophilic R-groups point outwardsm making the protien more soluble) and fibrous protiens (very little or no tertiary structure, long polypeptide chains rich in hydrophobic amino acids, insoluble in water and so tend to have structural roles).
    -simply outline the range of the different roles of protiens

    AS ENZYMES

    -Gobular protiens (most have a metabolic role)
    -Rubisco, in photosynthesis
    -Co-enzyme A, in respiration
    -DNA helicase, DNA polymerase, and DNA ligase, for DNA replication
    -DNA helicase, RNA polymerase, Transcription
    -peptidyl transferase, Translation

    AS STRUCTURAL Protiens

    -Collagen, flexible and strngth to tendons, blood vessles and skin
    -elastin, gives strength and elacticity to ligaments
    -keratin, main component of hair
    -Action and Myosin, used in muscle contraction

    AS HORMONES

    -Insulin, regulates the blood glucose levels.Released by the beta-cells of the Islet of Langerhans when blood glucose level is above the threshold, to allow the coversion of glucose to glycogen.
    -Glucagon......bla bla
    -ADH, for osmoregulation....
    -Adrenaline, acts as a nerotranmitter and a hormone, released when blood glucose levels are low, or during mental stress etc..

    MEMBRANE PROTIENS
    -carrier protiens (active transport, for ions)
    -glycoprotiens and receptors (to detect substanes and to adhere onto other cells to form a tissue)

    Respiratory PIGMENTS (haemoglobin, myoglobin, fetal haemoglobin)
    -Gobular so able to be transports in the blood
    -conjugated(possess a haem group, a non-protien component)

    ANTIBODIES
    -gobular, precise 3D shape complementry to antigen

    PHYTOCHROME
    -A conjugated protien, seed germination, flowerig of plants.

    Visual Pigments
    -Rhodopsin and Iodopsin have protien components.... etc etc

    Feeel free to add more to this (especially plant protien stuff)
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    I have my synoptic in exactly 3.5 hours. Wish me luck!

    [it's funny how no 1 thought that the heart can be the last question ]
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by k0rrupter)
    I have my synoptic in exactly 3.5 hours. Wish me luck!

    [it's funny how no 1 thought that the heart can be the last question ]
    IS THE HEART COMIN UP??
 
 
 
Turn on thread page Beta
Updated: June 24, 2005
The home of Results and Clearing

1,251

people online now

1,567,000

students helped last year

University open days

  1. Bournemouth University
    Clearing Open Day Undergraduate
    Fri, 17 Aug '18
  2. University of Bolton
    Undergraduate Open Day Undergraduate
    Fri, 17 Aug '18
  3. Bishop Grosseteste University
    All Courses Undergraduate
    Fri, 17 Aug '18
Poll
Will you be tempted to trade up and get out of your firm offer on results day?

The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE

Write a reply...
Reply
Hide
Reputation gems: You get these gems as you gain rep from other members for making good contributions and giving helpful advice.