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A2 AQA English Language ENB6 - Acquisition/Change watch

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    Hello!
    Is anyone else revising for this over the weekend for the exam on monday?
    Does anyone have any good researchers to quote in the language Change section? I have a lot of Acquisiton research to back up what I am saying but I am not sure if i need the same amount for change - or if i just use facts such as 'caxtons printing press' etc instead?

    Anyone got any advice?

    Sorry if this is posted elsewhere - if it is can you just direct me to the right place?
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    I think contextual examples are more important than language theorists here.
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    my teacher for this section of the course is absolute crap so i'm hoping to learn it all this weekend from a revision guide, lol! If anyone has anything that could help, please let me know! just pm me or something! cheers x
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    if anyone has a list of language acquisition theorists and their theories could they post it up...that would be really helpful , thanks
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    (Original post by Tubbler)
    if anyone has a list of language acquisition theorists and their theories could they post it up...that would be really helpful , thanks
    I have a few iv found so far, not done much revision yet!

    Sausser
    Childs understanding is FAR greater than it’s knowledge.

    Chomsky
    Parental language breaks grammatical rules.

    Lennenberg
    Very difficult to acquire language after a certain age, as language is a biologically controlled behaviour.

    Annyone else got any others?
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    thanks

    ive got SKINNER(1957) - children learn language through imitation and encouragement/reinforcement
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    Just remember to quote **** loads of researchers and give examples in from the texts. Will definitely bag you a B. I think the A will require that extra oompfh.
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    I personally disagree that you need to pack your answer with theorists. As long as you show an awareness of what is going on in the text, with the odd point backed up by some solid, respected research, that is better than reeling off a load of foreign names!
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    Sorry hat/tubler, have not gat copy of that sheet, looks like early on monday morning, see you at 8!
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    if anyone has a list of language acquisition theorists and their theories could they post it up...that would be really helpful , thanks
    Really useful ones for me are Belugi, Dore and Halliday. www.universalteacher.org.uk is a good site
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    Piaget-lang acq is linked to cognitive development eg.object permanence
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    yup that universal teacher sight is a brilliant starting point for both change modules. I am using Vgotsky + Piaget - interactional approach (and Piaget for cognitive) plus Chomsky for the naturist approach. could also bring skinner in for the behaviourist, conditioned responses etc. look them up online, they are v commonplace on some uni sites. i think the key to doing well is to go into that much more detail with the texts, and hold a dialogue with yourself, for both modules, although i'm quietly more confident about language acquistion. my teacher is amazing and he seems to always direct us to the right places!
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    Sorry to bother people who are revising, but has anyone got any hunches on questions this year? i'm going for possibly speaking and reading for Acquisition, but heaven knows for change, so if any ideas are about please let me know!
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    Just revising this atm so I'll post up my researchers for acquisition (don't have anything for language change).

    Halliday - created a taxonomy of language functions. The most important and interesting ones are heuristic language, which involves a child learning and exploring the environment, for example through a monologue; and imaginative language, which involves the child creating imaginary scenarios such as imaginary friends.

    Dore - also created a language taxonomy, pretty similar to Halliday. His most interesting category is practicing, which is where a child speaks to him/herself when no adult is present, to practice language forms.

    Clark, Hutchenson and Van Buren - a study showing how difficult it is to interpret how much a child really understands. They observed a child carrying strawberries to his father. His mother said 'don't you think that's enough?', and the child handed his mother a strawberry. The point of this is that if the mother had said 'can I have one?' everyone would have assumed the child knew what she was saying. Basically, children do not just rely on their understanding of words, but on their understanding of context and paralinguistic gestures (body language).

    Roger Brown - invented the mean length of utterance categories of language development as an alternative to the traditional holophrastic/two word/telegraphic divisions. You calculate the mean number of words in each of the child's utterances, and this gives you their level of development (the more words per utterance, the more developed the child’s language). This has major advantages because it emphasises continued development rather than a rapid increase in language competency followed by a plateau. It also doesn't try to impose time frames, which can differ considerably between children.

    Crystal - can be used to back up a point made concerning child directed speech or parentese. He claims that repetition and simplified pronunciation helps children recognise words and learn them gradually.

    P Kuhl - also an example of child directed speech. He found that parents across three different cultures continually emphasised the key vowel sounds of words - even though these important sounds differed according to the language. This was unconscious.

    Lenneburg - formulated the critical period hypothesis. He claimed that it is impossible to ever learn a fully functional language if we have not been exposed to it before the age of 12 (the critical period). This research is backed up by the horrible story of Genie, who was subjected to systematic child abuse and isolated from human contact until rescued at 13. She never learned to use language in a fully functional way.

    Chomsky - a language nativist, who believed that all humans are born with the innate capacity for language. We all possess a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) in the form of tools which allow us to instinctively comprehend the differences between verbs, nouns etc and how these should be constructed into sentences. Every normal child has these tools, and will develop a language as long as basic social conditions are met. To back up this theory, Chomsky claimed that we learn language incredibly quickly despite the fact that we are constantly exposed to ungrammatical speech full of ellipsis and errors. Despite this, we not only learn to copy adults but we acquire the tools to build our own utterances, which we have never heard anyone else speak before.

    Bickerton - provided evidence seeming to corroborate Chomsky's theory. He conducted a study of Hawaiian pidgin speakers (a pidgin = a basic, improvised language created when people of more than one language background have to work together). The pidgin was fairly grammatically basic, as most invented languages are. However, when these people had children the language was creolised - it became more grammatically rich, and the grammar corresponded to the underlying grammatical principles of all global languages. The children hadn't learnt this from anyone - it had developed spontaneously.

    Bruner criticised Chomsky's theory, saying that he had ignored the importance of a child's social surroundings when learning a language. He said that there must be a Language Acquisition Support System (LASS), in the form of the people surrounding the child as it learns to speak. They create ritualised ceremonies - such as story reading and bathtime - which are familiar, comfortable routines in which similar language is always used. This allows children to recognise and predict the phases of interaction, and this familiarity eventually allows them to move from a passive role to an active role in which they start contributing to the interaction.

    C Snow - a social interactionist who also criticised Chomsky. She claimed that spoken language is NOT ungrammatical and full of errors in the way Chomsky claims. Instead it is slow, repetitive and simple - exactly the conditions necessary for a child to learn. She believes that language is not innate; we learn it from the people around us.

    Vygotsky - a language psychologist who believed that we cannot think something that we do not have words for - language is a necessary precondition for thought. He believed that children first use language in exactly the same way as animals use sounds - to fulfil basic needs. However, adults are capable of inner speech - using language inside our heads to express thought. When moving from the first stage to the second child talk aloud (similar to Halliday's heuristic function).

    These are my main theorists – if anyone sees any mistakes please let me know!
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    Lenneburg - formulated the critical period hypothesis. He claimed that it is impossible to ever learn a fully functional language if we have not been exposed to it before the age of 12 (the critical period). This research is backed up by the horrible story of Genie, who was subjected to systematic child abuse and isolated from human contact until rescued at 13. She never learned to use language in a fully functional way.
    Don't go all out on Critical Period because its not a proven thing, your theorist is good but there have been examples which appear to disprove it.
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    no worries dangerous dan! yes, mon morning...arent we organised!
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    (Original post by rachaelmarie)
    Don't go all out on Critical Period because its not a proven thing, your theorist is good but there have been examples which appear to disprove it.
    I think it is more or less proven. All the examples I've read of children not learning language before 11 or so show that they can never speak proper, grammatical English. Quite interesting too is that people who learn sign language as a child 'speak' it fluently, whereas those who learn it as adults always have an 'accent' and can't use it idiomatically, as it were.

    What examples have there been which disprove it, out of interest?

    On a more general note, I don't think I can be bothered learning such as impressive list as yours, Mishael! I'm just going to use behaviourist (Skinner), cognitive (Piaget), nativist (Chomsky), interactive (role of motherese/caretaker speech) and Halliday, probably, if they're relevant, maybe Lenneberg. They're more interested in your analysis of the data given, but it's always good to back up what you're saying. None of them are really sufficient to explain why or how, so it's probably good to be able to contrast and compare, as long as it's relevant.
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    Im confused as in the various handouts i have, there are many different "Stages"

    I have one handout -
    the "5 stages of language acquisition" - which has function,meaning and structure - then descritpion of each stage.

    but then i have another handout:

    Crying stage - Birth
    Cooing stage - 6 weeks
    Babbling stage - 8 months
    One word utterences (holophrastic stage) - 1 year
    Two word utterences - 18 months
    Inflections - 2 years
    Questions/Negatives - 2 1/4 years
    Rare complex constructions - 5 yrs
    Mature speech - 10 years

    - I also have another handout with 14 other stages -
    1.Present progressive
    down to
    14. Contractible auxillary

    - I am scared as I don't know which stage framework to use.. my teacher hasnt really helped me with this. Im not even sure what the 14 stages are talking about either!
    Anyone got any advice?
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    What examples have there been which disprove it, out of interest?
    I don't know my english teacher told me, but there is because I read it in a book but I can't remember.

    I think its more important that whatever you use is relevant, and applicable rather than having loads of lists.

    Berko, and Brown are good to have.

    I also read somewhere of a study done with the peekaboo game to introduce a child to turn taking, has any one seen it or know the name.
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    (Original post by Buffyphil)
    Im confused as in the various handouts i have, there are many different "Stages"

    I have one handout -
    the "5 stages of language acquisition" - which has function,meaning and structure - then descritpion of each stage.

    but then i have another handout:

    Crying stage - Birth
    Cooing stage - 6 weeks
    Babbling stage - 8 months
    One word utterences (holophrastic stage) - 1 year
    Two word utterences - 18 months
    Inflections - 2 years
    Questions/Negatives - 2 1/4 years
    Rare complex constructions - 5 yrs
    Mature speech - 10 years

    - I also have another handout with 14 other stages -
    1.Present progressive
    down to
    14. Contractible auxillary

    - I am scared as I don't know which stage framework to use.. my teacher hasnt really helped me with this. Im not even sure what the 14 stages are talking about either!
    Anyone got any advice?
    You don't really need to know much about the very early stages, because they never give you a transcript that you can't say much about. The only stages I know are holophrastic, two word and telegraphic, and that was fine for my mock so I hope I don't need to know anything else!

    Most transcripts tend to show telegraphic language anyways.
 
 
 
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