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Ask me anything about Relationships, Bio Rhythms and Eating Behaviours! watch

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    Ask me anything about those topics, i want to see how prepared i am and also gives me a chance to help fellow students
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    what are the different stages of sleep?
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    Briefly Explain Narcolepsy and Sleep Walking.
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    (Original post by _xAnonymous)
    what are the different stages of sleep?
    The sleep cycle, an ultradian rhythm. Stages of Non Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep as defined by Dement and Kleitman (1953):

    Stage 1:
    -Brain waves slow from alpha waves to theta waves.
    -heart rate slows and muscles relax
    -Stage similar to that of deep relaxation
    -Aka Hypnogogic Stage easy to wake up from
    -Lasts approx. 15 minutes

    Stage 2:
    -theta waves get slower and larger due to sleep spindles
    -Sleep spindles (aka k-complexes) stimuli that is not enough to wake us, ie the wind from oustide your window.
    -heart rate and temperature fall
    -lasts about 20 minutes

    Stage 3:
    -further falls from heart rate
    -brain waves slow from theta waves into delta waves
    -stage lasts 15 minutes

    Stage 4:
    -Deepest sleep
    -growth hormones sectreted and metabolic rate is slowest
    -wake up only possible if it is a noise significant to you ie someone shouting fire or your baby crying
    -brainwaves at the slowest
    -lasts for between 30-40 minutes

    Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM)
    - brain waves more complex, faster
    -glucose and oxygen demands increase
    -eyes move under eyelids abd it is difficult to wake
    -speed of heart and lungs inccreases
    -Action of Reticular Activating System (RAS) prevents movement of msucles
    -lasts 15 minutes but increases as night goes on

    Routine:
    After going through stages 1 to 4, we quickly go back up to stage 2 and REM sleep replaces stage 1. we then repeat the stages around 6 times with less time being spent in stage 4 until the end of sleep when stage 4 is missed alltogether.

    The brain waves are measured by an Encephalogram (EEG) which has electrodes positioned at various parts around the head.
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    :top:

    explain one theory on the formation of relationships?
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    (Original post by kas0)
    Briefly Explain Narcolepsy and Sleep Walking.
    Narcolepsy: General Bouts of sleepiness during the day.

    -suggested that it is genetic, affects 1 in 1000 people (Aldrich 1993)

    The Four general symptons of Narcolepsy were outlined by Mahowold and Schenk (1992). Sufferes of Narcolepsy may not suffer from all the symptoms. The Four symptoms are as follows:

    -Extreme bouts of sleepiness, either gradual or immediate
    -Cataplexy, Collapse due to loss of skeletal muscle tone.
    -Sleep Paralysis, the inabillity to move after waking.
    -Hypnogic Hallucinations, dreamlike visions that are hard to distingish from reality

    Cause?

    neurons in the medulla (located in brainstem) that are active during REM sleep are also active during bouts of Cataplexy. These same neurons are also responsible for sending messages to the spinal cord to surpress skelatal muscles during REM sleep. Hence this is what causes the collapse.

    Lin et al (1999) identified mutant gene in dogs that affected receptor which was found toaffect brain cells called hypocretin, a chemical involved in sleep regulation.

    Sleep Walkingaka somnubalism = state inwhich a sleeping individual walks around as if awake.

    -known to be genetic and is more common in childhood.
    -condition most liely to occur in sleep stages 3 and 4 in the 1st half of the night
    -despite popular belief, sleep walking is rarely, and not in this case, a result of acting out dream

    REM Behavioural Disorder

    -REM Behavioural Disorder (RBD) IS when a dream is acted out.
    -Disorder is very rare and associated usually with those 50+
    - behaviour is very organised, ie eating or imaginary fighting (Mahowald and Schenck 2002)
    -disorder is rare because individual is usually paralysed during REM sleep.

    RBD is known to be common amongst sufferers of Parkinsons which suggests that the disorder is caused by the degeneration of motor responces
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    (Original post by _xAnonymous)
    :top:

    explain one theory on the formation of relationships?
    Reward/Need and Satisfaction Theory: the idea that we enter relationships inorder to satisfy needs or gain rewards

    -focuses on relationship formation as a result of operant conditioning (reward and punishment)

    Updated by Byrne and Clore (1970) Reinforcement-Affect Theory (RAT)

    -RAT expands on Reward/Need Satisfaction Theory by stating that classical conditioning (association) is also important for the formation of a relationship

    -aswell as beginning a relationship to satisfy needs and rewards, Byrne and Clore believed that some people "associate" potential spouses with pleasant feelings and situations.

    Evidence

    -Argyle 1992 found that those who were rewarding because they were friendly, helpful or cheerful were more popular.( negative side of this is that he focuses on friendships and not romantic relationships)

    -May and Hamilton (1980) asked female students how they rated photographs of men. One group viewed photos with pleasant music, the 2nd with negative music and the control group has no music. It was found that the women who listened to the positive music found more males attractive( Negative, Duck 1994 criticised many studies such as this because they focused on imaginery partners and not real life people)

    -Whole theory claims that we begin relationships for selfish reasons, but the equity Theory claims that those in unequal relationships, even those that are benefiting, are unsatisfied.

    The Matching Hypothesis= states that we look for partners with a similar level of attractiveness.

    -Original Walster et al (1966) study focused on Social Desirabillity, (ie intelligance, social standing) and not just attractiveness.

    -Study also beleived that mismatched couples would be unsatisfied and short relationships.

    Support:

    -Correlational Studies (Silverman 1971 and Murstein 1972) where existing couples were measured on atractiveness. Majority of couples were equal in attractiveness ( Negative, judged through photographs and not in real life)

    Against:

    -Complex Matching, Hatfield and Sprecher (2009) man could compensate for lack of attractivness through wealth, personaility, status etc

    -Gender Differences: Takeuchi (2006) attractiveness more important to men then women.
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    Are you writing all this from your head? or looking over things? cause i wouldnt be able to write half of what you are and i have an exam on it lol
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    Honestly, please tell me you're copying out notes and writing this.
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    (Original post by kas0)
    Are you writing all this from your head? or looking over things? cause i wouldnt be able to write half of what you are and i have an exam on it lol
    (Original post by mel0n)
    Honestly, please tell me you're copying out notes and writing this.
    No and No, the trick is to go over the main theories and concepts in simple terms, then as you get the hang of it go over it again in more detai, flash cards are also useful
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    (Original post by az1992)
    Ask me anything about those topics, i want to see how prepared i am and also gives me a chance to help fellow students
    Why do I not feel the need to get up and eat food? :eyeball:
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    (Original post by Broderss)
    Why do I not feel the need to get up and eat food? :eyeball:
    The Ventreal-Nucleus, located in the Hypothalamus has, having monitored glucose levels in the blood, decided That you are full and buzzed a sense of satiety around the brain.

    Otherwise its a case of you cba to go to the fridge,
    My account lacks alot of detail but I am particulary weak in terms fo eating behaviour topic
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    Hi there you seem to have all the answers here, im really stuck on a psychology assignment titled; Evaluate one social phychological research into Interpersonal Attraction. I am finding this a little difficult. Can yu help? :eek3:
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    is relationships an easier or harder topic than biorhythms? i know it will be more interesting but i'm finding the PSY3 unit so much easier than the PSY4 stuff I had to do (depression, addiction and the mandatory research methods - so glad i don't have to seperate my spearmans rho from my wilcoxon anymore XD)
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    reasons for the failure of dieting?
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    (Original post by az1992)
    Reward/Need and Satisfaction Theory: the idea that we enter relationships inorder to satisfy needs or gain rewards

    -focuses on relationship formation as a result of operant conditioning (reward and punishment)

    Updated by Byrne and Clore (1970) Reinforcement-Affect Theory (RAT)

    -RAT expands on Reward/Need Satisfaction Theory by stating that classical conditioning (association) is also important for the formation of a relationship

    -aswell as beginning a relationship to satisfy needs and rewards, Byrne and Clore believed that some people "associate" potential spouses with pleasant feelings and situations.

    Evidence

    -Argyle 1992 found that those who were rewarding because they were friendly, helpful or cheerful were more popular.( negative side of this is that he focuses on friendships and not romantic relationships)

    -May and Hamilton (1980) asked female students how they rated photographs of men. One group viewed photos with pleasant music, the 2nd with negative music and the control group has no music. It was found that the women who listened to the positive music found more males attractive( Negative, Duck 1994 criticised many studies such as this because they focused on imaginery partners and not real life people)

    -Whole theory claims that we begin relationships for selfish reasons, but the equity Theory claims that those in unequal relationships, even those that are benefiting, are unsatisfied.

    The Matching Hypothesis= states that we look for partners with a similar level of attractiveness.

    -Original Walster et al (1966) study focused on Social Desirabillity, (ie intelligance, social standing) and not just attractiveness.

    -Study also beleived that mismatched couples would be unsatisfied and short relationships.

    Support:

    -Correlational Studies (Silverman 1971 and Murstein 1972) where existing couples were measured on atractiveness. Majority of couples were equal in attractiveness ( Negative, judged through photographs and not in real life)

    Against:

    -Complex Matching, Hatfield and Sprecher (2009) man could compensate for lack of attractivness through wealth, personaility, status etc

    -Gender Differences: Takeuchi (2006) attractiveness more important to men then women.


    This all makes sense...except that didn't argyle come up with the reward-need and satisfaction model in 1994...so how could bryne and clore update it in 1970 (i.e. almost 30 years before!). If that isn't right, do you know who came up with the theory/when they did because every textbook is saying different things!!

    Thanks
 
 
 
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