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    Does anyone have a list of all the possible ways you can evaluate and criticise research studies? Maybe a sheet just called methodological criticisms? It would make my revision A LOT more helpful, thanks.

    And if it's important I'm in A2 doing the AQA A course.
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    (Original post by The Magnificent KoloToure)
    Does anyone have a list of all the possible ways you can evaluate and criticise research studies?
    LOL.

    This is why A-Level Psychology is stupid.
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    Dunno just like gender/beta/alpha bias etc

    IS IT VALID
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    (Original post by The Magnificent KoloToure)
    Does anyone have a list of all the possible ways you can evaluate and criticise research studies? Maybe a sheet just called methodological criticisms? It would make my revision A LOT more helpful, thanks.

    And if it's important I'm in A2 doing the AQA A course.
    A02

    Ecological Validity ie

    Historical Validity
    - A child of our time study, whether the study is relevant in this current day. For example Ascoff's study of majority conformity can be argued to be invalid today because it was done at a time when Americans were encouraged to follow the general publics anti communist and hippy views.

    Mundane realsim - whether the study matched real life situations. Aka May and Hamilton 1980 study which asked women to rate photos of men on attractiveness wasnt matching real life situations in which someone might associate a person with psotive situations and the people in this experiment were hypothetical

    Gender Differences- Some studies focus entirely or atleast slightly on a particular gender in their samples. Ie Wonderlich et al 1996 study on the relationship between Sexual Abuse and Bullimia Nervosa used a sample of 1099 women?! This means that it is unlikely its finding will be able to be generalised into men.

    Culteral Differences

    is the study relevant to other cultures. Ie Ferstingers study on proximity and relationships looked at College Students in America. These people are ofcourse going to formulate relationships differently then the Maori people of new Zealand. Also focus on the differences between Western (Individualistic) and Non-Western (Collectvist) cultures. Hpwever Buss (1989) did a cross culteral study
    on what people around the world find attractive in the opposite sex. This means that the findings are more likely to be correctly generalised on human kind as a whole.

    Role of Animals ie

    Validity - Studies that rely on animals may yield different results then if they were done on humans. Ie Johnson et al 2006 force starves hamsters to see neural activity before they are fed. The fact that appetite inducing neurons start firing before any food apopears may be relevant to a rat but humans have more complex brains

    Ethicical use of Animals - Was the study unessasarily putting harm to animals. BPS (British psychological Society) rules that animals only to be used in harmful studies when the human needs of the results are at a great level

    Ethics ie

    Consent - Did the participant consent to the experiment

    Right to Withdraw - Did the participant get the right to withdraw or was he or she made aware that they were allowed to.

    Physical or Mental Harm - was the participant exposed to anything that may have caused him harm?

    Deception - was the participant deceived to the true nature of the purpose?

    Debriefing - If the participant was deceived, was he made aware of the true nature at the end?

    AO3

    Reductionism - can the theory, concept or does the study rely to much on one psychological approach, ie Halmi 1995 relied on the pschodynamic perspective/approach for explanatuions of Bullimia Nervosa

    nature vs nurture - Does the study, theory or concept beleive that behaviour is a result of enviromental influences or tahtw e are born like that?

    Freewill v determinism- Does the Theory, Study or Concept state that behaviour is a result of our own freewill? or do we do what we do because of extrenal influences?

    Psychology as a Science - Does the theory discredit psychology as a science.

    -Sciences need to be objective (Able to be observed and measured) as opposed to being subjective ( subject to an individuals interpretation.

    -needs to be falsifiable ( proved or disproved)

    taking this on board, the Psychodynamic perspective discredits psychologies credentials as a science where as the behavioural theory backs up psychologies aims to be a science.

    implications? - i dont know if this is exactly a requirement but i think it gets you some bonus marks if you can state why a study is important. Ie studies on melatonin supplements on jetlag sufferers is important because it could mean that in the future there are supplements made available to eradicate Jetlag.

    I hope this helps, if you need anymore help just private message me.
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    That's great thanks!

    And I was being lazy to be honest. I've done most of my notes already but that will help a couple of the topics I needed to evaluate more (group displays of aggression/ theories of sleep).
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    (Original post by The Magnificent KoloToure)
    That's great thanks!

    And I was being lazy to be honest. I've done most of my notes already but that will help a couple of the topics I needed to evaluate more (group displays of aggression/ theories of sleep).
    its cool if you have any notes on sleep id be grateful for them
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    (Original post by az1992)
    A02

    Ecological Validity ie

    Historical Validity
    - A child of our time study, whether the study is relevant in this current day. For example Ascoff's study of majority conformity can be argued to be invalid today because it was done at a time when Americans were encouraged to follow the general publics anti communist and hippy views.

    Mundane realsim - whether the study matched real life situations. Aka May and Hamilton 1980 study which asked women to rate photos of men on attractiveness wasnt matching real life situations in which someone might associate a person with psotive situations and the people in this experiment were hypothetical

    Gender Differences- Some studies focus entirely or atleast slightly on a particular gender in their samples. Ie Wonderlich et al 1996 study on the relationship between Sexual Abuse and Bullimia Nervosa used a sample of 1099 women?! This means that it is unlikely its finding will be able to be generalised into men.

    Culteral Differences

    is the study relevant to other cultures. Ie Ferstingers study on proximity and relationships looked at College Students in America. These people are ofcourse going to formulate relationships differently then the Maori people of new Zealand. Also focus on the differences between Western (Individualistic) and Non-Western (Collectvist) cultures. Hpwever Buss (1989) did a cross culteral study
    on what people around the world find attractive in the opposite sex. This means that the findings are more likely to be correctly generalised on human kind as a whole.

    Role of Animals ie

    Validity - Studies that rely on animals may yield different results then if they were done on humans. Ie Johnson et al 2006 force starves hamsters to see neural activity before they are fed. The fact that appetite inducing neurons start firing before any food apopears may be relevant to a rat but humans have more complex brains

    Ethicical use of Animals - Was the study unessasarily putting harm to animals. BPS (British psychological Society) rules that animals only to be used in harmful studies when the human needs of the results are at a great level

    Ethics ie

    Consent - Did the participant consent to the experiment

    Right to Withdraw - Did the participant get the right to withdraw or was he or she made aware that they were allowed to.

    Physical or Mental Harm - was the participant exposed to anything that may have caused him harm?

    Deception - was the participant deceived to the true nature of the purpose?

    Debriefing - If the participant was deceived, was he made aware of the true nature at the end?

    AO3

    Reductionism - can the theory, concept or does the study rely to much on one psychological approach, ie Halmi 1995 relied on the pschodynamic perspective/approach for explanatuions of Bullimia Nervosa

    nature vs nurture - Does the study, theory or concept beleive that behaviour is a result of enviromental influences or tahtw e are born like that?

    Freewill v determinism- Does the Theory, Study or Concept state that behaviour is a result of our own freewill? or do we do what we do because of extrenal influences?

    Psychology as a Science - Does the theory discredit psychology as a science.

    -Sciences need to be objective (Able to be observed and measured) as opposed to being subjective ( subject to an individuals interpretation.

    -needs to be falsifiable ( proved or disproved)

    taking this on board, the Psychodynamic perspective discredits psychologies credentials as a science where as the behavioural theory backs up psychologies aims to be a science.

    implications? - i dont know if this is exactly a requirement but i think it gets you some bonus marks if you can state why a study is important. Ie studies on melatonin supplements on jetlag sufferers is important because it could mean that in the future there are supplements made available to eradicate Jetlag.

    I hope this helps, if you need anymore help just private message me.
    Fantastic thanks !
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    (Original post by az1992)
    its cool if you have any notes on sleep id be grateful for them
    Yeah, I do actually.

    Which topics do you want?
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    (Original post by The Magnificent KoloToure)
    Yeah, I do actually.

    Which topics do you want?
    erm biological behavior, relationships, eating behaviors
    thanks
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    (Original post by az1992)
    erm biological behavior, relationships, eating behaviors
    thanks
    Only doing biological rhythms out of those.

    Here's my notes on them so far, should have the rest done in the next couple of hours or tomorrow morning:

    Biological Rhythms
    There are three main types of biological rhythms in the body; Ultradian, Circadian and Infradian rhythms, which last for different amounts of time. Endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers are said to control these rhythms.
    Ultradian rhythms are those which occur more than once a day. Freidman & Fisher studied these rhythms by placing people in total isolation without any time cues and measuring the average length of time between each case of eating, drinking and smoking. They found this to be 85-100 minutes. Other research on ultranian rhythms suggests that they shorten when a person is under stress (hence why people smoke or eat more when depressed). This suggests that endogenous pacemakers do not always stay the same, they can be affected by exogenous zeitgebers.
    Researchers have also found that brain systems linked to ultradian rhythms, such as nuclei in the hypothalamus can disrupt or abolish ultradian rhythms if damaged or destroyed. This suggests that biological factors are ultimately responsible for ultradian rhythms, even if outside influences can affect them.
    Circadian rhythms occur roughly once a day, with the obvious example being sleep. The SCN is mainly responsible for rhythms such as sleep. Information on light levels is transferred to the SCN (usually through the retina), which tells the SCN if it is time for the person to sleep or wake up. If the SCN detects a lot of darkness, it will send a message to the pineal gland that produces the hormone melatonin. This makes a person feel drowsy and will help them to fall asleep. Campbell and Murphy researched the SCN by seeing what would happen if it was detected while a person was sleeping. They did this by shining a bright light on the back of a person’s knew for three hours while they were asleep. Results showed that the person’s sleeping pattern was affected the next night, showing that the SCN can change (as well as control) usual circadian rhythms.
    Another study showed how the circadian rhythm of sleep changes when there are no exogenous zeitgebers that can affect it. This was carried out on a cave explorer named Siffre who moved to an underground cave with no external sources of light or time for five months. He would determine his own sleeping patterns which eventually settled on a 25-30 hour pattern. This suggests that the endogenous pacemaker regulating sleep lasts longer than a day, and needs exogenous zeitgebers to correct it.
    - An obvious problem with this research is that it is a case study on only one man. Therefore it is unwise to extrapolate his findings to the wider population.
    - However, a similar study on students in an underground bunker found that they would settle on 25-27 hour sleeping patterns, supporting Siffre’s findings that the circadian rhythm of sleep should last more than one day.
    Infradian rhythms such as the menstrual cycle last longer than a day, and are more likely to be governed by hormones. However research shows that exogenous zeitgebers can affect rhythms such as the menstrual cycle (which is controlled by hormones). These could be diet, stress or pheromones. controlled by hormones). These could be diet, stress or pheromones. Russel et al looked at this effect of pheromones (biochemicals that people release into the air) on the menstrual cycle by applying the pheromones of one woman to a group of 5 sexually inactive women participants. They found that 4 of the 5 women synchronised their cycles to within one day of the ‘donor’ woman’s menstrual cycle. This suggests that even infradian rhythms that are controlled by hormones can be affected by external zeitgebers.
    Evaluation of research into bio rhythms:
    - The sample sizes in most of these studies are very small. For example, Siffre’s research involves only one man and Russel’s five women. This makes it harder to extrapolate the findings from these studies to wider society, as the individuals involved could be rare anomalies.
    - There is a lack of research into exactly how the exogenous zeitgebers interact with the endogenous pacemakers. For example, it would be very useful to know which zeitgebers are more important and the different ways that they interact with the endogenous pacemaker.

    Consequences of Disrupting Biological Rhythms
    Decreased alertness, sleep deprivation, effects on health, social disruptions
    Jet Lag –
    There are two main results of jet lag - phase delay and phase advance. Phase delay occurs when flying west and means your body clock has to delay sleep as you gain hours. The alternative is phase advance, which occurs when flying eastbound and your body has to lose hours, then forcing itself to sleep before you’re ready. Siffre’s research suggests that endogenous pacemakers actually run longer than 24 hours, therefore it should be easier to gain hours (phase delay) than lose them (phase advance). Research by Schwartz supports this, as he analysed American baseball games in which teams travelled from east to west and west to east (therefore losing or gaining three hours). He found that the teams experiencing phase delay managed significantly more wins than those experiences phase advance.
    Shift Work –
    Shift work is especially disruptive to circadian rhythms because it goes against the major pattern of sleeping in the night and staying awake during the day. One of the effects of doing this long term is a greater chance of organ disease. Marino et al linked shift work to a range of organ diseases, including kidney disease.
    Research on jet lag can help to reduce the negative effects of shift work. This is because rotating shifts in an early-late-night-early-late-night pattern will work in a similar way to phase delay, which is recommended as it allows workers to gain longer (as opposed to shorter) working days, which studies such as Schwartz’s show is easier to cope with. Czeisler et al tested this in a chemical plant in Utah and found that after months with the new system, both worker satisfaction and factory output had increased.
    Melatonin has also been put forward as a cure for jet lag and shift lag, as it is the natural hormone that induces sleep. However if taken at the wrong times in the day, it could delay adaptation as you fall asleep too early/late.

    The Nature of Sleep
    The Stages of Sleep:
    - The nature of sleep is studied by looking at how we sleep and what happens during this time. Sleep is divided into two main stages; Slow-Wave Sleep and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (SWS and REM respectively).
    - Sleep research has only become possible as a result of new technology that allows brain and muscle activity to be monitored while a person is asleep. EEG is how this has been done since the 1930s and involves attaching electrodes to the person’s scalp, allowing researchers to classify different levels of brain arousal by recording the gross electrical activity of the brain.
    Aserinky and Kleitman used the EEG to identity SWS and REM sleep as different phenomena.
    - SWS has four different stages:
    1. The heart beat slows down, muscle tension reduces and brain waves become smaller and slower.
    2. EEG patterns become synchronised with larger slower waves, interrupted by fast spiking activity called ‘sleep spindles’.
    3. Heart rate and body temperature falls.
    4. EEG recordings consist purely of delta waves while arousal threshold (how hard it is to wake someone) is very high.
    - REM sleep is entered after stage 4 of SWS. At this point brain waves suddenly become very fast, making it appear (on the EEG) that the brain is working very hard and the person is awake. Paradoxically, it is at this point that a person is hardest to wake as their muscles are completely relaxed. REM sleep gets its name from the fact that the eyeballs rapidly move in their sockets during this period.
 
 
 
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