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Ask me anything about Biological Rhythms, Relationships and Eating Behaviours watch

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    For those doing AQA a A2 on Friday, if you have any problems with a specific topic just ask. I will try and see if I can help
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    you people?!
    im offering the dozens of people who complain pn these boards they dunno wtf to do for this exam some notes and it gets NO replies?

    how the hell does that figure?
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    Okay... neural mechanisms of eating. Any helpful advice?
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    hey az1992! how did u revise for pya4? how many essays did u learn altogether for relationships?
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    (Original post by DrGalago)
    Okay... neural mechanisms of eating. Any helpful advice?
    indeed,

    Neural Mechanisms

    Nucleus's in the Hypothalamus or Hormones and Neurotransmitters

    -------------------------------------------------
    Neural Mechanisms

    Ventromedial Nucleus (VMN) - controls satiety (the full feeling)

    Lateral Nucleus (LN)- Controls Hunger

    Baylis et al 1996 (lesioning* in VNM) *Fancy word for damaging

    Method:8 male and 5 female rats had lesions to their VNM. These rats were later compared to aged-matched control groups.

    Results: The lesioned rats became obese while the control group didn't.

    Conclusion: Damage to the VNM causes Hyperphagia (overeating) so the VNM must be responsible for satiety.

    Evaluation: small sample, used rats so cant be generalized to humans, Logue 2004 pointed out that other brain tissue could have been damaged as well therefore clouding true neurological source of satiety.

    Winn et al 1990 (Lesioning in VN)

    Method: Toxin NMDA used to create lesion in LN of rats. One group had a small dose of NMDA to the LN only, another group a large dose that affected LN and surrounding areas and the control group had no dose.

    Results: No change in behavior in group with small dose after recovery, no change in control group but rats with a large dose experienced long term eating deficit

    Conclusion: damage to Hypothalamus impairs feeding responses but the LN may not have as much of an effect as 1st thought.

    Evaluation: This was originally a study to test effects of NMDA in the hypothalamus and so other variables weren't considered. Only rats were used and so cant be generalized to humans who may have more complex brain.

    -----------------------------------------------------

    Hormones and Neurotransmitters

    Insulin, Glucose and Leptin

    Insulin: Rozenwig, Breedlove and Leiman (2002) Lowering of Insulin in animals increases appetite,

    Glucose: Campfield and Smith (1993) increasing Glucose in blood stream suppresses appetite in animals AND humans.

    Leptin: Licinino (2003) studied turkish family that had depleted levels of Leptin. After Leptin supplements, defiicient family members body weight and eating behavior returned to normal.

    London (2007) used fMRI imaging to look at Turkish familys brain before there was any Leptin and after Leptin injections. This was good as it allowed look at effects of Leptin in the brain. Surprised that Leptin caused activity in prefrontal cortex.

    Ravussin et al 1997: two groups matched on weight, after 3 years, those that had gained the most weight had lower mean plasma leptin concentrates.

    Satiety Process:

    The stomach fires neurons upon arrival of food to the brain which stretches the stomach walls. Once satiety is reached, the stomachs reflex using the vagus nerve to tell the VNM that satiety is reached.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------

    I hope this helps, let me know if you don't understand anything.
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    (Original post by angel880529)
    hey az1992! how did u revise for pya4? how many essays did u learn altogether for relationships?
    essays? you mean theories or studies?

    basically try and learn atleast 1 study or theory for each topic and 2 supporting studies. Is there any sub topic in relationships that your having particular trouble with?
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    Neural mechanisms of eating?? Any helpful advice? And just the essay writing in general? Any ideas for general technique, how much/how little to say etc?
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    (Original post by DrGalago)
    Neural mechanisms of eating?? Any helpful advice? And just the essay writing in general? Any ideas for general technique, how much/how little to say etc?
    Look above your original post for neural mechanisms,

    erm general technique, try and structure it depending on what it asks and also try attached a point per mark, ie Lavin 1984, case of man who suffered shra[nel wound and as a result couldnt go thorugh REM sleep but didnt suffer any negative effects.

    Outline: give a rough description of concept as in very basic

    Describe: paint a more detailed picture of concept

    Explain ........... in terms of .........: just link between two concepts and ideas you have learnt about.

    Evaluate: Put forward strengths and Limitations of the concept or theory, using supporting studies to highlight your points.

    Critically Analyze: Criticise study/theory/concept
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    Thanks a lot... and sorry for asking twice something strange happened and it wouldn't show me any new posts.... so I was unsure if it had posted correctly the first time, so asked again. Sorry!!
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    I didnt see this thread and created a different thread asking for help.

    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show....php?t=1165054

    could you help me with this please?
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    Im unsure on relationships espically the section on adult relationships. any good tips on how to break it down?
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    If there was a question on the nature of sleep.. what would you write about?

    I'm so confused.
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    (Original post by az1992)
    For those doing AQA a A2 on Friday, if you have any problems with a specific topic just ask. I will try and see if I can help
    Outline and evaluate the restoration theory?
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    would you mind sharing a succint set of notes specifically on the topics of Relationships and Eating Behaviours
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    (Original post by az1992)
    Neural Mechanisms

    Ventromedial Nucleus (VMN) - controls satiety (the full feeling)

    Lateral Nucleus (LN)- Controls Hunger

    Baylis et al 1996 (lesioning* in VNM) *Fancy word for damaging

    Method:8 male and 5 female rats had lesions to their VNM. These rats were later compared to aged-matched control groups.

    Results: The lesioned rats became obese while the control group didn't.

    Conclusion: Damage to the VNM causes Hyperphagia (overeating) so the VNM must be responsible for satiety.

    Evaluation: small sample, used rats so cant be generalized to humans, Logue 2004 pointed out that other brain tissue could have been damaged as well therefore clouding true neurological source of satiety.

    Winn et al 1990 (Lesioning in VN)

    Method: Toxin NMDA used to create lesion in LN of rats. One group had a small dose of NMDA to the LN only, another group a large dose that affected LN and surrounding areas and the control group had no dose.

    Results: No change in behavior in group with small dose after recovery, no change in control group but rats with a large dose experienced long term eating deficit

    Conclusion: damage to Hypothalamus impairs feeding responses but the LN may not have as much of an effect as 1st thought.

    Evaluation: This was originally a study to test effects of NMDA in the hypothalamus and so other variables weren't considered. Only rats were used and so cant be generalized to humans who may have more complex brain.
    What textbook did you read those studies in?

    The Nelson Thornes one shows those exact studies but the experimenters were Hetherington & Ranson and Anand & Brobeck, respectively.

    I hate it when different textbooks shows different things for the same thing. Happened last year too on the abnormality topic, a handout from my teacher and the NT textbook showed huge differences in terms of figures and findings. :mad:
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    PS Helper
    Some help on Nature of Sleep and Insomnia please?
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    (Original post by ACDC)
    What textbook did you read those studies in?

    The Nelson Thornes one shows those exact studies but the experimenters were Hetherington & Ranson and Anand & Brobeck, respectively.

    I hate it when different textbooks shows different things for the same thing. Happened last year too on the abnormality topic, a handout from my teacher and the NT textbook showed huge differences in terms of figures and findings. :mad:
    haha and they say psychology is an easy subject.

    Those studies were out of the CGP revision book. To be honest I would worry about finding the "right" date name and figures as im sure the Examiners are aware of the differences.

    I think its because studies tend to be updated or replicated by someone else. ie the breakdown stages of a relationship model by duck and rollie 2006 which i learnt is under duck 2006 in the CGP book and doesnt include the breakdown or resurrection stages

    Hows the revision going?
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    (Original post by ibelongtoslytherin)
    Outline and evaluate the restoration theory?
    Oswald 1980 Restoration theory

    Rem sleep restores brain
    Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) restores body and recovery

    evaluation -

    support
    Michael Courke- inherited Fatal Familial Insomnia. Mental and Physical deterioration. eventually died.

    Stern and Morgane (1974) Neurotransmitters restored during REM sleep

    Breedlove (2007) More Rem Sleep in Premature babies. Indicates Rem sleep developed and organized brain suggesting restorative function. he also found that 60 year olds spend half as much time in SWS as they did when they were 20 and SWS disappeared altogether after the age of 90. this suggests as we get older and our bodies deteriorate, there is no need for bodily restoration (This study can also be used if question about Lifespan changes comes up)

    Against

    Lavin et al 1984 - case study of man who suffered shrapnel wound at age of 20 and very little, if any REM sleep as a result. Suffered no detrimental mental or physical effects and later at the age of 33 went on to practice law.

    ( make notes and then write them on cards and practice.)
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    (Original post by Dillio)
    Some help on Nature of Sleep and Insomnia please?
    By nature of sleep do you mean sleep functions or the sleep stages?
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    (Original post by Dillio)
    Some help on Nature of Sleep and Insomnia please?
    Also Insomnia you have

    Primary Insomnia - Insomnia as a result of external causes, IE stimulants or disruption of bodily rhythms such as shift work or jet lag.

    Secondary Insomnia - Insomnia as a result of internal problems.
    -Physical conditions ie arthritis
    -Psychological Condiotions ie depression]
    -Medication (okay so this is external but think of it as an exception as it is nessasary to cure underlying health problem)
    -Stress and Anxiety

    Didnt really focus on insomnia, rather narcolepsy and somnabulism but one study is Vgontas (2007) that adrenocorticotrophic Hormones cause insomnia (related to stress)
 
 
 
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