Question on evolutionary reasons for food preferences. Help! Watch

ibelongtoslytherin
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I am currently going through all notes I have on this topic and am completely confused even though it is a straight forward question.

Discuss two or more explainations of food preferences

Which points would you include, and how would you structure it in terms of AO1, AO2 and A03

Thanks in advance
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Lit2010
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I'll help!

You can talk about taste aversion- how someone can dislike a food due to an unpleasant experience with it. Talk about how this can be beneficial to survival, as if a food makes you sick, it could be damaging your health. You may want to link this to conditioning and behaviourist principles.
Taste aversion includes morning sickness in pregnancy, and shows how avoiding certain foods can protect the species.
You can then mention practical applications, for example alcoholics are given a drug which makes them sick whenever they consume alcohol. Then discuss the advantages of this: it helps individuals overcome alcoholism, gives them a sense of control and ultimately takes the pressure off the NHS.

There are also aspects like food neophobia, taste and olfaction and the role of meat. All of which are equally valid, but i'd say taste aversion has the most to say about it.

Typical synoptic points you can make:
Validity- are theories still valid in modern society even though we are far more socially complex?
Evidence- relies on assumption which is unscientific which lowers psychology's reputation as a science
Reductionism- does not consider the role of emotion on food preferences and how people will prefer foods they have made positive associations with
Nature/Nurture- shows impact of nurture- we've evolved from common ancestors yet food preferences vary greatly which shows individual differences and social influences

I hope this helps, if there's anything else I can do, just ask
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ibelongtoslytherin
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(Original post by Lit2010)
I'll help!

You can talk about taste aversion- how someone can dislike a food due to an unpleasant experience with it. Talk about how this can be beneficial to survival, as if a food makes you sick, it could be damaging your health. You may want to link this to conditioning and behaviourist principles.
Taste aversion includes morning sickness in pregnancy, and shows how avoiding certain foods can protect the species.
You can then mention practical applications, for example alcoholics are given a drug which makes them sick whenever they consume alcohol. Then discuss the advantages of this: it helps individuals overcome alcoholism, gives them a sense of control and ultimately takes the pressure off the NHS.

There are also aspects like food neophobia, taste and olfaction and the role of meat. All of which are equally valid, but i'd say taste aversion has the most to say about it.

Typical synoptic points you can make:
Validity- are theories still valid in modern society even though we are far more socially complex?
Evidence- relies on assumption which is unscientific which lowers psychology's reputation as a science
Reductionism- does not consider the role of emotion on food preferences and how people will prefer foods they have made positive associations with
Nature/Nurture- shows impact of nurture- we've evolved from common ancestors yet food preferences vary greatly which shows individual differences and social influences

I hope this helps, if there's anything else I can do, just ask
Thank you so much! That helps a lot. Ill have more questions on different things later such as relationships and biological rhythms. Can i message you about those topics later?
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Lit2010
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(Original post by ibelongtoslytherin)
Thank you so much! That helps a lot. Ill have more questions on different things later such as relationships and biological rhythms. Can i message you about those topics later?
I can help with biological rhythms, but I haven't studied relationships.
Feel free to message me
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ibelongtoslytherin
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(Original post by Lit2010)
I can help with biological rhythms, but I haven't studied relationships.
Feel free to message me

How would you tackle this question...

Discuss two or more biological explanations of anorexia nervosa
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Lit2010
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(Original post by ibelongtoslytherin)
How would you tackle this question...

Discuss two or more biological explanations of anorexia nervosa
Start off talking about genetics (Holland et al) and how a concordance rate between MZ twins less than 100% shows social factors are involved. As twins share genes and environment, it may be hard to differentiate between biological and social influences.
From this, personal factors such as self-esteem may be involved which would explain why sufferers of AN are more sensitive to media pressure.
Genetic theories are socially sensitive and they blame victims.
Findings are correlational and so cause and effect can not be established.

You can then talk about serotonin- low levels of serotonin are found in sufferers of AN. There is difficulty in determining the direction of causality as it can not be proven whether AN causes low serotonin or whether low serotonin causes AN. This is deterministic as not all people with low serotonin have AN; low levels of serotonin have also been found in aggressive and depressed individuals.

Or, you can talk about Anand and Brobeck's research into the LH which found that lesions to it caused aphagia (a complete loss of appetite) Criticise this because it was an animal study and not necessarily applicable to humans. This does not explain why: AN develops during puberty, why it affects far more women than men*, and why social influences are so important. (remember AN is psychological)

*it's gender biased and socially sensitive to forget about male sufferers- they are not given the empathy or treatment they need as openly as female sufferers.

Also, remember that a lot of AN research is eurocentric and it has also been found that there are more cases of AN the more exposed a culture is to western media. If AN were biological alone there would be the same frequency of sufferers throughout the world.

That's all I can think of, obviously I haven't properly evaluated it, but the basics are there
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ibelongtoslytherin
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(Original post by Lit2010)
Start off talking about genetics (Holland et al) and how a concordance rate between MZ twins less than 100% shows social factors are involved. As twins share genes and environment, it may be hard to differentiate between biological and social influences.
From this, personal factors such as self-esteem may be involved which would explain why sufferers of AN are more sensitive to media pressure.
Genetic theories are socially sensitive and they blame victims.
Findings are correlational and so cause and effect can not be established.

You can then talk about serotonin- low levels of serotonin are found in sufferers of AN. There is difficulty in determining the direction of causality as it can not be proven whether AN causes low serotonin or whether low serotonin causes AN. This is deterministic as not all people with low serotonin have AN; low levels of serotonin have also been found in aggressive and depressed individuals.

Or, you can talk about Anand and Brobeck's research into the LH which found that lesions to it caused aphagia (a complete loss of appetite) Criticise this because it was an animal study and not necessarily applicable to humans. This does not explain why: AN develops during puberty, why it affects far more women than men*, and why social influences are so important. (remember AN is psychological)

*it's gender biased and socially sensitive to forget about male sufferers- they are not given the empathy or treatment they need as openly as female sufferers.

Also, remember that a lot of AN research is eurocentric and it has also been found that there are more cases of AN the more exposed a culture is to western media. If AN were biological alone there would be the same frequency of sufferers throughout the world.

That's all I can think of, obviously I haven't properly evaluated it, but the basics are there
ahh your my psychology hero!
+ rep coming your way
are you taking the exam on friday?
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Lit2010
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(Original post by ibelongtoslytherin)
ahh your my psychology hero!
+ rep coming your way
are you taking the exam on friday?
Yep, I am, and I'm terrified! I've written about 17 essay plans and have figured it would be better to memorise them as 30 minutes to write an essay does not allow much time to think!
And thanks
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ibelongtoslytherin
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(Original post by Lit2010)
Yep, I am, and I'm terrified! I've written about 17 essay plans and have figured it would be better to memorise them as 30 minutes to write an essay does not allow much time to think!
And thanks
17!!??
I am only doing 11! I am so failing :/
What are those 17 about?
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Lit2010
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I've got:
1.Social explanations of aggression
2.Biological explanations of aggression
3.Institutional aggression
4.Group displays of aggression
5.Evolutionary explanations of aggression
6.Insomnia
7.Functions of sleep
8.Nature of sleep (sleep states)
9.Endogenous pacemakers and external zeitgebers
10.Other sleep disorders
11.Total sleep deprivation
12.Disrupting biological rhythms
13.Lifespan changes in sleep
14.Anorexia nervosa
15.Feeding and satiation
16.Attitudes to food
17.Evolutionary food preferences
18.The success/failure of dieting


so tell a lie, there are 18!
I'm sure you won't fail though- just make sure you know the content well and know ways in which you can evaluate such as synoptic points and issues and debates you can use
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ibelongtoslytherin
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(Original post by Lit2010)
I've got:
1.Social explanations of aggression
2.Biological explanations of aggression
3.Institutional aggression
4.Group displays of aggression
5.Evolutionary explanations of aggression
6.Insomnia
7.Functions of sleep
8.Nature of sleep (sleep states)
9.Endogenous pacemakers and external zeitgebers
10.Other sleep disorders
11.Total sleep deprivation
12.Disrupting biological rhythms
13.Lifespan changes in sleep
14.Anorexia nervosa
15.Feeding and satiation
16.Attitudes to food
17.Evolutionary food preferences
18.The success/failure of dieting


so tell a lie, there are 18!
I'm sure you won't fail though- just make sure you know the content well and know ways in which you can evaluate such as synoptic points and issues and debates you can use
Wow, see our teacher told us to only revise
. Success and failure of dieting
. evolutionairy explanations of food prefference
. biological explanations of AN

and for Sleep
. circadian rhythms
. endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers
. Insomnia
. function of sleep

thats all, and a few for relationships :/
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az1992
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(Original post by Lit2010)
I've got:
1.Social explanations of aggression
2.Biological explanations of aggression
3.Institutional aggression
4.Group displays of aggression
5.Evolutionary explanations of aggression
6.Insomnia
7.Functions of sleep
8.Nature of sleep (sleep states)
9.Endogenous pacemakers and external zeitgebers
10.Other sleep disorders
11.Total sleep deprivation
12.Disrupting biological rhythms
13.Lifespan changes in sleep
14.Anorexia nervosa
15.Feeding and satiation
16.Attitudes to food
17.Evolutionary food preferences
18.The success/failure of dieting


so tell a lie, there are 18!
I'm sure you won't fail though- just make sure you know the content well and know ways in which you can evaluate such as synoptic points and issues and debates you can use
pleeeeeeeeeeease pleeeeeease can you write up and send me 11, 13, 15,16, 17 ,18?
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angel880529
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(Original post by ibelongtoslytherin)
Wow, see our teacher told us to only revise
. Success and failure of dieting
. evolutionairy explanations of food prefference
. biological explanations of AN

and for Sleep
. circadian rhythms
. endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers
. Insomnia
. function of sleep

thats all, and a few for relationships :/

hey wot are the relationship questions predicted by your teacher
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ibelongtoslytherin
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(Original post by angel880529)
hey wot are the relationship questions predicted by your teacher

Discuss the relationship between sexual selection and human reproductive behavious.

Discuss evolutionary explanations of sex differences in parental investment and parent offspring conflict.

Discuss the influence of parent child relationships and interactions with peer and adult relationships.
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janeh5
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(Original post by ibelongtoslytherin)
I am currently going through all notes I have on this topic and am completely confused even though it is a straight forward question.

Discuss two or more explainations of food preferences

Which points would you include, and how would you structure it in terms of AO1, AO2 and A03

Thanks in advance

I'd do:

Tendancy to binge eat
-food was scare & erratic
-maximisation of stored energy (eg. binge eating) would have been adaptive
-sweet, fatty, salty foods especially sought after.
-humans who learned fatty foods supplied more energy cosumed as much as possible, more likely to survive

Support
-people now find it hard to ignore high fat foods now they are cheaply and readily available
-another evo tactic would be to conserve energy by not excersising - explains obesity.


Preference for sweet foods
-sweet taste often sign of ripeness, high concentration of sugar & quick fix for calories
-would encourage consumption of ripe fruit

Support
-considerable empircal suppotr for 'innate sweet tooth'
-people of all ages will prefer sweet foods (Meiselman)
-even 3 day old infants (Desor et al)
-Eskimos who previously lacked sugar in diet didn't reject it --- preference for sweet taste not culturally learned (Bell et al)
-tongue has specific receptors for sweetness --- more receptors for this than any other taste


They'd be my mains ones..then I might do avoidance of dangerous foods depending on time.

& a03 points obv.
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