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OCR 2010 A2 Biology Unit 2 - Control, Genome and Environment watch

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    What are the advantages and disadvantages of plant cloning in agriculture.
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    Can someone answer for me A and B? please:p:
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    What is the meaning of the term "Genetic code"??
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    What is the role of cyclic AMP in translation?
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    what exactly is mutation? and how does it arrise?
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    i hope you can forgive me for postin many questions:p:
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    what is the business with Loc Operon? and how does it work?
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    what is the business with Loc Operon? and how does it work?
    1)We have a region in DNA itself called lac operon. This whole region is involved in certain regulatory processes(for the synthesis of structural protein and has base sequences which determine whether a gene needs to be activated or de-activated, In other words yes/no command .
    Note: The regions which will be mentioned from now on are within the lac operon.
    2)Operon: This region/length of DNA has base sequences which are involved in transcription ( conversion of dna info into rna for protein synthesis).So basically they synthesis structural proteins.
    3) Promoter: This region/length of DNA is specific in shape so that rna-Polymerase can bind to to catalyze transcription.
    4)Right to next it is the Operator.If this region is left un-binded it allows transcription to take place.
    5)We also have a region called regulator.This has base sequences which are involved in the synthesis of Repressor Proteins.These proteins bind to two different places.In DNA they bind to the operator hence stopping the appearance of a structural protein,they also bind to lactose( which if found in the medium) , their shape changes after binding with lactose.Due to these changes they cant bind to the operator region,so transcription carries on.
    i haven't read much during the last 3 week . I will be answering once i am done reading lol.
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    Yh i've already sorted out my student bank account:p: i decided i'll just stick with HSBC because halifax is a bit risky preposition they make false promises e.g. £3000 overdraft limit when no one rarely gets the full overdraft limit
    lol you right me neither didn't have the backbone to face this thread i was completely cluelesss(As the thread starter I am embarassed to say the least), but im startin to get hang of it.
    No need to be embarassed. I'm embarassed, I'm pretty much doing this at uni next year!

    Good you got the banking sorted anyway! :p:

    Ahh got another practical tomorrow, got tonsilitus though so not sure I'll make it in. Messed up my other 2 quantitative ones though
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    What practicals have you guys done so far, for this Unit F215 ?
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    1)We have a region in DNA itself called lac operon. This whole region is involved in certain regulatory processes(for the synthesis of structural protein and has base sequences which determine whether a gene needs to be activated or de-activated, In other words yes/no command .
    Note: The regions which will be mentioned from now on are within the lac operon.
    2)Operon: This region/length of DNA has base sequences which are involved in transcription ( conversion of dna info into rna for protein synthesis).So basically they synthesis structural proteins.
    3) Promoter: This region/length of DNA is specific in shape so that rna-Polymerase can bind to to catalyze transcription.
    4)Right to next it is the Operator.If this region is left un-binded it allows transcription to take place.
    5)We also have a region called regulator.This has base sequences which are involved in the synthesis of Repressor Proteins.These proteins bind to two different places.In DNA they bind to the operator hence stopping the appearance of a structural protein,they also bind to lactose( which if found in the medium) , their shape changes after binding with lactose.Due to these changes they cant bind to the operator region,so transcription carries on.
    i haven't read much during the last 3 week . I will be answering once i am done reading lol.
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    Actually, we don't. That's in bacteria. E. coli to be precise. Also, the repressor proteins don't bind to lactose, lactose binds to them.

    Also, I'll just add in a bit extra about the genes transcribed.

    The first one is beta-galactosidase. This hydrolyses lactose into galactose and glucose to be used as respiratory substrates

    The second is lactose permease. This speeds up the uptake of lactose into the bacterial cell
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)


    Can someone answer for me A and B? please:p:
    A) In normal sexual reproduction, only the mother's mitochondrial DNA is found in the offspring.

    B) The polypeptides produced from mitochondrial genes would be involved in respiratory processes, for example the electron transport chain proteins or enzymes associated with Krebs Cycle (bit of a synoptic link for you there)

    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    What is the role of cyclic AMP in translation?
    Some proteins (after being translated) have to be activated by a chemical, cyclic AMP that, like ATP is a nucleotide derivative. It activates proteins by changing their 3D-shape so that their shape is a better fit to their complementary molecules.

    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    What is the meaning of the term "Genetic code"??
    The sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that determines the specific amino acid sequence in the synthesis of proteins.

    Also, in answer to your other question, a mutation is a change in the amount of, or arrangement of, the genetic material in a cell.

    Mutagens are substances that can cause mutations. These include tar, UV light, X-rays and gamma rays.

    Hope this helps
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    (Original post by xXxBaby-BooxXx)
    A) In normal sexual reproduction, only the mother's mitochondrial DNA is found in the offspring.

    B) The polypeptides produced from mitochondrial genes would be involved in respiratory processes, for example the electron transport chain proteins or enzymes associated with Krebs Cycle (bit of a synoptic link for you there)



    Some proteins (after being translated) have to be activated by a chemical, cyclic AMP that, like ATP is a nucleotide derivative. It activates proteins by changing their 3D-shape so that their shape is a better fit to their complementary molecules.



    The sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that determines the specific amino acid sequence in the synthesis of proteins.

    Also, in answer to your other question, a mutation is a change in the amount of, or arrangement of, the genetic material in a cell.

    Mutagens are substances that can cause mutations. These include tar, UV light, X-rays and gamma rays.

    Hope this helps
    Hey thanks alot for the answers i havent been in touch with bio for over 2 weeks.lol
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    (Original post by xXxBaby-BooxXx)
    A) In normal sexual reproduction, only the mother's mitochondrial DNA is found in the offspring.

    B) The polypeptides produced from mitochondrial genes would be involved in respiratory processes, for example the electron transport chain proteins or enzymes associated with Krebs Cycle (bit of a synoptic link for you there)



    Some proteins (after being translated) have to be activated by a chemical, cyclic AMP that, like ATP is a nucleotide derivative. It activates proteins by changing their 3D-shape so that their shape is a better fit to their complementary molecules.



    The sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that determines the specific amino acid sequence in the synthesis of proteins.

    Also, in answer to your other question, a mutation is a change in the amount of, or arrangement of, the genetic material in a cell.

    Mutagens are substances that can cause mutations. These include tar, UV light, X-rays and gamma rays.

    Hope this helps
    Thanks again for your help i really admire your awesome biology knowledge and your abiliy to retain it lol:p:
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Hey thanks alot for the answers i havent been in touch with bio for over 2 weeks.lol
    LOL it is hard isn't? i found it incredible hard last year to keep up with biology even thought i found it ok but due to me playin too much football(i used to go football every day) and gaming on ps3 i've let my self down last year, however you don't have to worry this year i've chucked away the ps3 out of the window!
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    LOL it is hard isn't? i found it incredible hard last year to keep up with biology even thought i found it ok but due to me playin too much football(i used to go football every day) and gaming on ps3 i've let my self down last year, however you don't have to worry this year i've chucked away the ps3 out of the window!
    Join the club-
    My routine Last year:
    Used to spend daily 3-5 hours on some stupid MMORPG game which was supposed to be 'free' and apparently when my moms credit card balance showed up then i knew what they meant by that. Hell my tutor thought i was on drugs lol... oh those sleepless nights anyways thats all in the past. This week i had no bio. at all as our tutor is on some trip. Yeay i saw him in my dream last night and guess what lol from what i remember he was in my house teaching me o.o. ......
    To those interested enough check this attachment out.Our homework for this week. Btw. i have some interesting questions/answers on this module which i will post later on.
    http://rapidshare.com/files/35593288...week.docx.html
    :cool: i swear by the time i wasted last year i shall succeed in the upcoming exam(be it on seals or dolphins lol ).
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Join the club-
    My routine Last year:
    Used to spend daily 3-5 hours on some stupid MMORPG game which was supposed to be 'free' and apparently when my moms credit card balance showed up then i knew what they meant by that. Hell my tutor thought i was on drugs lol... oh those sleepless nights anyways thats all in the past. This week i had no bio. at all as our tutor is on some trip. Yeay i saw him in my dream last night and guess what lol from what i remember he was in my house teaching me o.o. ......
    To those interested enough check this attachment out.Our homework for this week. Btw. i have some interesting questions/answers on this module which i will post later on.
    http://rapidshare.com/files/35593288...week.docx.html
    :cool: i swear by the time i wasted last year i shall succeed in the upcoming exam(be it on seals or dolphins lol ).
    WOw i wasn't expectin this type of teaching method lol anyways the teaching method in my college is much more relaxed and straightforward:p:
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    WOw i wasn't expectin this type of teaching method lol anyways the teaching method in my college is much more relaxed and straightforward:p:
    Hahah well thats what i need ;P anyways i will see you all later probably with questions/answers LOL... Good night i really need some short sleep.:p:
    EDIT: tbh he rarely gives us this much work not to mention it includes Half-term assignment which i need to do (lol).
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    I really cannot be bothered for these courseworks, I hate redoing them, aargh.
    My resit one for A2 is apparently going to be on enzymes, anyone else know they're doing it on enzymes?
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    Apparently our class failed miserably in the Practical exams, nobody got higher than a U. We're going to do a new set of ones covering topics on Unit 2, anyone done them so far ?
 
 
 
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