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    for the equations in hardy weinberg why are their two equations.

    when do you use the one with P squared....
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    (Original post by CreativeBass)
    Hi all hope biology revision is going well, just wondered if anyone can sum up these two points from the spec for me please:

    # explain the significance of the various concepts of the species, with reference to the biological species concept and the phylogenetic species concept.

    # Describe how arfitical selection has been used to produce bread wheat

    Thank you
    The biological species concept is that 'a species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring' but its not a very good definition as it can't be applied to organisms that breed asexually. tigers and lions interbreed in zoos (not in the wild) but they are of separate species. and it is also difficult to determine whether widely separated species would interbreed to form fertile offspring.

    the phylogenetic concept is 'a species is a group of organisms that have similar morphology, physiology, biochemistry, embryology and behaviour' this is a more widely applicable concept.

    thats all i got!
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    (Original post by rayray10)
    Also, can someone explain how you sequence DNA using BACs? My teacher only went through the chain termination method and I can't find my textbook :/
    Chain termination method?

    With BAC; identify the gene you would like - sometimes done with use of microsatellites.
    The extracted gene is then placed in BAC's which are then taken up by E Coli
    These form clones by binary fission which carry the gene that we've placed.
    The cells are isolated and DNA extracted using restriction enzymes.
    Run through automated process where computer then reads the sequence.
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    (Original post by TX22)
    for the equations in hardy weinberg why are their two equations.

    when do you use the one with P squared....
    P squared represents homozgyous dominant.
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    (Original post by CreativeBass)
    Chain termination method?

    With BAC; identify the gene you would like - sometimes done with use of microsatellites.
    The extracted gene is then placed in BAC's which are then taken up by E Coli
    These form clones by binary fission which carry the gene that we've placed.
    The cells are isolated and DNA extracted using restriction enzymes.
    Run through automated process where computer then reads the sequence.
    It's when you use restriction enzymes and dideoxynucleotides. Chain termination may not be its proper name, oops, ha.
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    bread wheat is literally:
    start with one wheat:Wild Einkorn AuAu, with 2n=14
    it is then domesticated and artificial selection, altering PHENO-, but not GENOtype.
    Einkorn is then crossed with wild grass BB to form a sterile hybrid, AuB
    A mutation occurs that double the chromosome number to AuAuBB. (Emmer wheat)
    This is then crossed with Goat Grass DD to form another sterile hybrid AuBD
    Another mutation occurs and you have Common Wheat AuAuBBDD
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    (Original post by rayray10)
    I can do genetically engineered insulin, but not transplants. Can you explain that please? Thank you so much
    It's easy to remember, it's only a few bullet points.

    Organ failure is treated with a transplant, obviously, but if it's xenotransplantation (across different species, ie. piggy to Bob McBob) the chances of rejection are whoppingly big. There's just too much genetic difference. Between the same species (Mabel O'Guinness to Bob McBob) has less genetic difference, but still the chance of rejection is pretty big.

    So scientists are messing with aformentioned piggy to make it 100% acceptable to Bob McBob:

    1. Genes for human cell-surface proteins are inserted into piggy DNA
    A newly fertilised embryo of a piggy gets an injection of human cell-surface protein gene, which integrates into piggy's DNA.
    Piggy starts producing human cell-surface proteins instead of piggy proteins.

    2. Genes for piggy cell-surface proteins are shoved out (removed or inactivated)
    Piggy protein genes are inactivated in the nucleus. The nucleus is transferred to an unfertilised animal egg cell (nuclear transfer, from cloning). The whole cloning/nuclear transfer process happens, so it's stimulated to grow into an embryo and then into a piggy.
    The piggy doesn't have animal cell surface proteins, so it cuts the chance of rejection like whoa.

    E.g. Piggy would've produced a sugar called Gal-alpha(1,3)-Gal to stick onto its cell-surface proteins but Bob McBob can't produce that.

    Piggy is now called a Knockout Pig (I'm calling it Knockout Piggy for continuity purposes) that doesn't produce the enzyme needed to make that complicated-named sugar.
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    (Original post by dopeyangel101)
    bread wheat is literally:
    start with one wheat:Wild Einkorn AuAu, with 2n=14
    it is then domesticated and artificial selection, altering PHENO-, but not GENOtype.
    Einkorn is then crossed with wild grass BB to form a sterile hybrid, AuB
    A mutation occurs that double the chromosome number to AuAuBB. (Emmer wheat)
    This is then crossed with Goat Grass DD to form another sterile hybrid AuBD
    Another mutation occurs and you have Common Wheat AuAuBBDD
    Thank you so much
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    (Original post by CreativeBass)
    Chain termination method?

    With BAC; identify the gene you would like - sometimes done with use of microsatellites.
    The extracted gene is then placed in BAC's which are then taken up by E Coli
    These form clones by binary fission which carry the gene that we've placed.
    The cells are isolated and DNA extracted using restriction enzymes.
    Run through automated process where computer then reads the sequence.
    mentioning "overlapping regions" generally gets a moark as well!
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    (Original post by CreativeBass)
    Thank you so much
    Glad to be of service
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    (Original post by Talon19921992)
    mentioning "overlapping regions" generally gets a moark as well!
    Oh yeah - ah too much information, things are slipping out! Thanks
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    (Original post by Talon19921992)
    mentioning "overlapping regions" generally gets a moark as well!
    OMG what do you mean by overlapping regions???
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    (Original post by noodlecookie)
    It's easy to remember, it's only a few bullet points.

    Organ failure is treated with a transplant, obviously, but if it's xenotransplantation (across different species, ie. piggy to Bob McBob) the chances of rejection are whoppingly big. There's just too much genetic difference. Between the same species (Mabel O'Guinness to Bob McBob) has less genetic difference, but still the chance of rejection is pretty big.

    So scientists are messing with aformentioned piggy to make it 100% acceptable to Bob McBob:

    1. Genes for human cell-surface proteins are inserted into piggy DNA
    A newly fertilised embryo of a piggy gets an injection of human cell-surface protein gene, which integrates into piggy's DNA.
    Piggy starts producing human cell-surface proteins instead of piggy proteins.

    2. Genes for piggy cell-surface proteins are shoved out (removed or inactivated)
    Piggy protein genes are inactivated in the nucleus. The nucleus is transferred to an unfertilised animal egg cell (nuclear transfer, from cloning). The whole cloning/nuclear transfer process happens, so it's stimulated to grow into an embryo and then into a piggy.
    The piggy doesn't have animal cell surface proteins, so it cuts the chance of rejection like whoa.

    E.g. Piggy would've produced a sugar called Gal-alpha(1,3)-Gal to stick onto its cell-surface proteins but Bob McBob can't produce that.

    Piggy is now called a Knockout Pig (I'm calling it Knockout Piggy for continuity purposes) that doesn't produce the enzyme needed to make that complicated-named sugar.
    Thank you sooo much Got a lot of love for you nowwwww
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    I don't actually understand it myself, I have just gradually picked things up from people on here!!! heh but I am sure overlapping regions gets a mark!!!

    Edit: Also "clone libraries" might as well!!!
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    (Original post by Talon19921992)
    I don't actually understand it myself, I have just gradually picked things up from people on here!!! heh but I am sure overlapping regions gets a mark!!!

    Edit: Also "clone libraries" might as well!!!

    DEFO clone/genomic libraries for a mark
    and overlapping
    and BIG computer :P
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    Can anyone explain clone libraries? i just dont get them :thumbsdown:
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    (Original post by chuck111)
    SO EXCITED
    seriously i need kalms jsut to calm my excitment
    Kalms it ****... I was really high when I took..
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    if there is a 8 MARKER ON genetic engineering or DNA stuff, i will PISS my pants with excitement
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    (Original post by Archen)
    DEFO clone/genomic libraries for a mark
    and overlapping
    and BIG computer :P
    I feel like I've been compelled to forget everything to do with biology, yet somehow I have a distant memory that I once knew what these meant.......
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    (Original post by Archen)
    DEFO clone/genomic libraries for a mark
    and overlapping
    and BIG computer :P
    You could say "computer technology" or you could say "magic" :p:

    EDIT:// Sorry, immature moment...
 
 
 
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