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    (Original post by HotCoco.)
    Anyone here planning an all-nighter? I'm very tempted as whenever I'm not looking at a text book the information is seeping out from my ears! :zomg:

    I dont mind, throw sum questions away
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    I think I'll go to sleep now and wake up at 1 or 2am. I can't take in anything now. Good luck for tomorrow everyone! :woo: We can all have a right ***** about it when we get back. :p:
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    (Original post by 102102)
    I dont mind, throw sum questions away
    Explain how plasmids may be taken up by bacterial cells in order to produce a transgenic MO that can express a desired gene product.
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    (Original post by HotCoco.)
    Explain how plasmids may be taken up by bacterial cells in order to produce a transgenic MO that can express a desired gene
    product.
    The bacteria are place in ice cold chloride solution to make the walls more permeable, and then the plasmids are added to the mixture. The mixture is head shocked for 1 - 2 minutes, this encourages the plasmids to move into the bacteria.

    The recombinant dna integrates with the bacterial dna.


    The bacteria then divide to produce the desired gene?


    yay, nay?
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    Plasmids and Bacteria cells are mixed.

    Because the process can be slow, we add calcium salts/heat shock and raise the temp to 40c so the rate at which bacteria is taking up plasmids increases

    The Bacteria that takes up the plasmid is termed Transformed Bacteria, because this bacteria now has a new set of DNA, we term it as transgenic Bacteria.

    ^ Good enough answer, i will obv term it better in exam..jus rushin it atm
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    (Original post by HotCoco.)
    Explain how plasmids may be taken up by bacterial cells in order to produce a transgenic MO that can express a desired gene product.
    i shall do mi best to explan, sowi if it doesn't make much sense!
    the plasmid and the gene are cut using the same restriction enzyme so that they have complementary sticky endings
    in the presence of the enzyme ligase, the plasmid woul combine w the gene to form a recombinant uptake.
    in order to increase the uptake of the gene, u would add calcium salts and heatshock (heat from freezing to 40*C very quickly)
    hope that helps x
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    (Original post by Dmanscoop)
    The bacteria are place in ice cold chloride solution to make the walls more permeable, and then the plasmids are added to the mixture. The mixture is head shocked for 1 - 2 minutes, this encourages the plasmids to move into the bacteria.

    The recombinant dna integrates with the bacterial dna.


    The bacteria then divide to produce the desired gene?


    yay, nay?

    Yh, just expand on it in the exam.
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    People who are solely reading through the book, are you feeling confident?

    Not much exam papers etc?
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    Someone, quickly explain replica Plating, if possible..that's the only bit i'm nt confident with
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    (Original post by 102102)
    Someone, quickly explain replica Plating, if possible..that's the only bit i'm nt confident with
    Tissue culture?

    1. Take cuttings from parent plant.
    2. Ideally stem cells from shoot tips.
    3. Sterilise to kill micro-organism which compete for resources, decreasing growth rate.
    4.Transfer stem cells into culture, with nutreists(glucusoue for respiration) and growth factors.
    5. Small plant should form, at this point, take out of culture and plan into soil.
    6. Large plant should grow.

    Hows that..?
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    ^^ No, that's totally wrong lol
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    (Original post by radical07)
    Some quickfire qu's for anyone wanting to flex their muscles:

    - 3 ways giving variation in meiosis?
    - describe innate behavoir
    - Advantages of social behaviour in gorillas / baboons etc
    -random mutation - especially during replication of DNA in interphase before prophase1
    -fertilisation - Genetic information from genetically unrelated individuals contributed
    - crossing over in prophase 1 where sections of chromatids are exchanged and sister chromatids are no longer identical
    - independant assortment of homologous chromomes (maternal and paternal) in metaphase 1
    - segregation of chromatids in anaphase 2


    behaviour that is not learned and is inherited genetically

    oh theres millions of stuff for that one
    - social hierarchy
    - protection in numbers (less of a risk to the individual)
    - things like grooming where they benefit each other
    - not likely to starve
    - more likely to mate
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    (Original post by HotCoco.)
    Anyone here planning an all-nighter? I'm very tempted as whenever I'm not looking at a text book the information is seeping out from my ears! :zomg:
    im doing one now
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    (Original post by 102102)
    ^^ No, that's totally wrong lol

    lol care to explain
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    (Original post by 102102)
    Someone, quickly explain replica Plating, if possible..that's the only bit i'm nt confident with
    so lets say the gene for tetracycline is broken up...
    the bacteria is grown on standard nutrient agar, all the bacteria would grow and form colonies
    someof the cells from the colonies are transferred onto agar with ampicillin, one those that had taken up the plasmid would grow
    and then some of these cells would be transferred to agar made with tetracycline, here, only those without the insulin would grow (i.e. without the plasmid)
    therefore those that had grown on the ampicillin agar but not on the tetracycline agar have taken up the plasmid with the insulin gene.

    is that ryt?
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    i cant stay up any longer. i feel knackered but on a normal day this would be early for me :s

    think im gonna call it a day and wake up at 3 or 4am and go at it again.
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    (Original post by -F-)
    i cant stay up any longer. i feel knackered but on a normal day this would be early for me :s

    think im gonna call it a day and wake up at 3 or 4am and go at it again.
    I'm awake...it's 4:22 dude.
    Man my eyes are red as the sun.

    Time to do some more past papers before the infamous test :eek:
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    (Original post by New Username)
    I'm awake...it's 4:22 dude.
    Man my eyes are red as the sun.

    Time to do some more past papers before the infamous test :eek:
    Morning :p: I had one hour of sleep.
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    Morning everyone!

    How did you all sleep?

    I had biology dribbling out my brain all night, and apparently also talking in my sleep about operant conditioning :confused: I don't remember though
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    (Original post by noodlecookie)
    Morning everyone!

    How did you all sleep?

    I had biology dribbling out my brain all night, and apparently also talking in my sleep about operant conditioning :confused: I don't remember though
    haha yeah this was happenin to me before the c4 exam.
    I was trying to integrate something while asleep and I was drifting in and out of sleeping.

    I've been told dreaming about what you've learned is a great way to remember...lets hope that's the case.
 
 
 
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