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    What a shame yall folks use other book while i lay hang on mary jones
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    (Original post by TX22)
    are secondary metabolites also produced in the death phase of the growth curve as well as the stationary phase?
    From what i can recall:
    stationary phase: No. of deaths = No. of Reproduced.
    Death-Phase: No . of deaths > No. of reproduced. The form in which it falls down is : x = ae^kt (no need to learn it).No secondray wont be produced during the death phase UNLESS its a by-product of the decayed organism? see what i mean =} because from one angle the micro-organism are reproducing, respiring and so on not to mention various enzymes working at same isntant.
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    can someone go through trasncription in short, not complicated.

    i get confused when the dna unwinds and MRNA comes but how does it copy the template strand.
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    (Original post by TX22)
    can someone go through trasncription in short, not complicated.

    i get confused when the dna unwinds and MRNA comes but how does it copy the template strand.
    Ok here is from what i can recall:
    Transcription: Conversion of DNA into mRNA.Its basically the conversion of complementary strands of dna to m-RNA with difference lying in the base uracil in m-RNA instead of thymine.RNA-polymerase is the enzyme which catalyzes production of m-RNA.Take operon an example for this:Operon is the region of DNA which consist of sets of off/on gene for the production of "structural genes".Here we have lac operon (the part of dna which expresses the actual gene we need).Right next to it is the promoter here is where RNA-Polymerase attaches.By its attachment is how transcription initiates,next to this region is the operator:where repressor proteins bind to as a result of which transcription stops.
    Within the operon lies another region called regulator: which releases repressor proteins.Repressor proetins have two targets: either operator or lactose.

    Sorry i hope i made any sense at all :/ seeing that i havent slept whole night...ZZzzzz


    You must be referring to the production of Insulin? as its related to it anyhow here is whats needed to be done:
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    What old spec past papers are relevant to F215 ? Can you please tell me the Unit name/code. +rep available.
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    (Original post by Liverpool F.C.™)
    What old spec past papers are relevant to F215 ? Can you please tell me the Unit name/code. +rep available.

    Mammalian Physiology has all the stuff on muscles and behaviour in the last module of F215, and I think all the genetics stuff will be on Application of Genetics! Offhand, I'm not sure about the others
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Ok here is from what i can recall:
    Transcription: Conversion of DNA into mRNA.Its basically the conversion of complementary strands of dna to m-RNA with difference lying in the base uracil in m-RNA instead of thymine.RNA-polymerase is the enzyme which catalyzes production of m-RNA.Take operon an example for this:Operon is the region of DNA which consist of sets of off/on gene for the production of "structural genes".Here we have lac operon (the part of dna which expresses the actual gene we need).Right next to it is the promoter here is where RNA-Polymerase attaches.By its attachment is how transcription initiates,next to this region is the operator:where repressor proteins bind to as a result of which transcription stops.
    Within the operon lies another region called regulator: which releases repressor proteins.Repressor proetins have two targets: either operator or lactose.

    Sorry i hope i made any sense at all :/ seeing that i havent slept whole night...ZZzzzz


    You must be referring to the production of Insulin? as its related to it anyhow here is whats needed to be done:
    Woah you've just combined transcription with the lac operon. If they ask about transcription they don't want to hear about the lac.
    Basically:

    -A gene to be transcribed unwinds and unzips. To do this, the length of DNA that makes up the gene dips into the nucleolus. Hydrogen bonds break between complementary bases break. This is catalysed by DNA polymerase

    Activated RNA nucleotides bind, with hydrogen bonds, to their exposed complementary bases, on the template strand. this is catalysed by RNA polymerase

    The mRNA produced is complementary to the nucleotide base sequence of the template strand of the DNA and is therefore a copy of the base sequence of the coding strand of the length of DNA

    The mRNA is released from the DNA and passes out of the nucleus, through a pore in the nuclear envelope.

    Hope this helps
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    Process of genetically engineering Golden Rice anyone?
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    Species

    Species - a group of organisms that are similar in morphology, physiology, biochemistry and behaviour and that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.

    Biological species concept - a group of similar organisms that interbreed to produce fertile offspring.

    Phylogenetic species concept - a group of organisms that are similar in morphology, physiology, embryology and behaviour and that occupy the same ecological niche.

    Clade - phylogenetic lineage.

    Monophyletic - ancestral organisms and their descendent species.

    Cladistics - method of classifying organisms based on their evolutionary ancestry:
    - Uses DNA and RNA sequencing
    - Uses computer programmes
    - Each species exists between 2 branching points on a cladogram.
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    (Original post by student92)
    Process of genetically engineering Golden Rice anyone?
    Sure. Here is how it all goes.First why do we need genetic modified rice? Obvious reason being its to do with the production of rodophsin.Rodophsin is one of the photo-receptors, so people living in highland areas or 3rd world countries where vit.A is scarce in their diet need an alternative.
    For this geneticists pin-pointed the gene which codes for the B-carotene.B-caretene is same as Vit.A i.e 2 x B-caretene = 1 x vit.A or retinol.
    The gene was extracted from the plant daffodils were of enzymes phytoene synthase and other being from the bacterium carotene desaturase.I dont think we need to know the names of these enzymes specifically nevertheless the points to note is that as you can see one enzyme is from the plant and other form the bacteria.The enzyme in bacteria is needed because it allows transcription to occur.

    To ever simplify:
    B-carotene genes extracted from the plant daffodil.
    This gene along with promoter are added to the plasmid (in the bacteria i.e vector).Nature of this bacteria is to infect plant cells as a result of which new plant embryos also carry the modified gene.

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    (Original post by xXxBaby-BooxXx)
    Woah you've just combined transcription with the lac operon. If they ask about transcription they don't want to hear about the lac.
    Basically:

    -A gene to be transcribed unwinds and unzips. To do this, the length of DNA that makes up the gene dips into the nucleolus. Hydrogen bonds break between complementary bases break. This is catalysed by DNA polymerase

    Activated RNA nucleotides bind, with hydrogen bonds, to their exposed complementary bases, on the template strand. this is catalysed by RNA polymerase

    The mRNA produced is complementary to the nucleotide base sequence of the template strand of the DNA and is therefore a copy of the base sequence of the coding strand of the length of DNA

    The mRNA is released from the DNA and passes out of the nucleus, through a pore in the nuclear envelope.

    Hope this helps
    yea :/ it was too early in the morning besides i was awake whole night .poo
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Sure. Here is how it all goes.First why do we need genetic modified rice? Obvious reason being its to do with the production of rodophsin.Rodophsin is one of the photo-receptors, so people living in highland areas or 3rd world countries where vit.A is scarce in their diet need an alternative.
    For this geneticists pin-pointed the gene which codes for the B-carotene.B-caretene is same as Vit.A i.e 2 x B-caretene = 1 x vit.A or retinol.
    The gene was extracted from the plant daffodils were of enzymes phytoene synthase and other being from the bacterium carotene desaturase.I dont think we need to know the names of these enzymes specifically nevertheless the points to note is that as you can see one enzyme is from the plant and other form the bacteria.The enzyme in bacteria is needed because it acts as a promoter for transcription to take place.

    To ever simplify:
    B-carotene genes extracted from the plant daffodil.
    This gene along with promoter are added to the plasmid (in the bacteria i.e vector).Nature of this bacteria is to infect plant cells as a result of which new plant embryos also carry the modified gene.

    11
    cheers x
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    Natural and Artificial selection

    Natural Selection:
    - Environment does the selecting
    - Features are the adaptations to the environment
    - All the features are involved
    - Allele frequencies in a gene pool change as a result of selection for and against the phenotype
    - Speed is slow

    Artificial Selection:
    - Humans do the selecting
    - Features are determined by breeders which are thought to be commercially valuable
    - A small number of features involved e.g. Milk yield
    - Allele frequencies in a gene pool change as a results of selection and non-random mating determined by humans
    - Speed is fast
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    (Original post by student92)
    cheers x
    Any orhtr questions feel free to ask .=}
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    Examples of Artificial selection

    Modern dairy cow

    1) Females selected by performance testing - Record down milk yields under the same conditions, best selected.
    2) Males selected by progeny testing - Males with alleles that will improve milk yields are selected by seeing if their female offspring produce good yields.
    3) Sperm for male is artificially inseminated into cows.
    4) Female undergos superovulation
    5) Egg fertilised by in vitro
    6) Embryos implanted into surrogates.

    Bread Wheat - Triticum Aestivum

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    (Original post by student92)
    In my text book it says the death phase
    Well, in the graph in my text book, it shows the production stops during death phase.
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    I wonder how hard this exam will be, does anyone think it will be like the unit 4 paper in terms of difficulty.

    its such a long unit so like half the topics wont even come up
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    Finished module 3! So feel like talking about something...lets see...

    The efficiency of energy transfer from producers to primary consumers and from primary consumers to secondary consumers is low, therefore to maximise the NPP, or SP (secondary productivity)..(Ooh..Productivit y is the rate at which energy flows through each trophic level in a food chain, it indicates the amount of energy available in each trophic level per unit area per unit time), humans can manipulate the energy flow in food chains.
    The Primary productivity is the total amount of energy that is fixed by photosynthesis. It is the net flux of carbon from the atomsphere to plants.

    The Gross primary productivity is the rate at which autotrophs convert light energy into chemical energy.

    The NPP, is the amount of energy that is available to heterotrophs. It is the PP- repiratory heat loss.

    To maximise the NPP:
    Some examples of what humans can do are:
    1) Ensure light is not a limiting factor of photosynthesis, put plants under light banks
    2) Ensure temp is not a limiting condition, grow plants in greenhouse.
    3) Use herbicides to prvent competition
    4) Use pesticides to prevent biomass loss due to pests, or breed pest resistant plants.

    and many more....!

    To maximise the SP:
    1) Treat animals with steroid to increase proportions of energy to growth
    2) harvest animals when young, where they use more energy for growth
    3) Use approches like zero grazing, where animals don't have to move around, and the temperature is controlled, so not much energy wasted for movement/ to maintain body temperture

    and many more...!
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    (Original post by TX22)
    I wonder how hard this exam will be, does anyone think it will be like the unit 4 paper in terms of difficulty.

    its such a long unit so like half the topics wont even come up
    I'm dreading this exam, it's one hell of a unit but you cannot risk anything and have to learn everything inside out to be on the safe side, I remember my teacher last year predicting what was most likely to come up for the exam and she failed miserably, everything she said didn't come up :facepalm2: Even though they are more likely to test you on the new topics which have been introduced to the specification, but you never now what can come up. The last thing you want is sitting in the exam room with a question on the paper you was too lazy to revise for.

    Also have to remember that there's more for the examiners to choose for to put in as the synoptic assessment as it's the last written exam for the course. Especially lot's relating to last years Unit 2 (F212).
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    yeh i know.

    imagine it being as hard as the unit 4 paper, thats like a 100 mark paper.

    biotechnology, cloning, ecosystems are the easiest topics i think in this unit.

    i am preparing for the worst and thinking this is a going to a really hard exam so i know every topic inside out.
 
 
 
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