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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    PCR or Polymerase Chain reaction is basically the production or synthesis of more DNA(genetic material).Since in genome sequencing or in isolating a particular gene we would like to have various copies of the actual DNA(just to be on the safe side).How is this done? Here are the following steps:
    1) The whole structure of the DNA is basically de-stabilized such that the the H-H interaction between the nucleotides breakup.This is done at 95C.
    2)Now the single strands of DNA are exposed such that DNA polymerase could start off by attaching free dna nucleotides.(Note: DNA polymerase cant just start synthesizing new DNA it needs direction (guidance) this is done by the help of primers.So to cut it short: here annealing is done i.e adding primers,free DNA nucleotidesAt 65C.
    3)DNA polymerase comes into action here as its been adapted work at such a temp. at 72 C. :O viola! DNA.... and this step goes on and on.
    Note: These enzymes are extracted from micro-organism which survive at hostile temp.

    Hope Its clear to you now. Feel free to post any further questions.
    Regards.
    Thanks so much

    I wasn't expecting help and I was just having a moan really, and you have really helped
    I would rep you if you hadn't disabled it :p:
    xxx
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    (Original post by lil_miss_rapunzel)
    Thanks so much

    I wasn't expecting help and I was just having a moan really, and you have really helped
    I would rep you if you hadn't disabled it :p:
    xxx
    Ah nah no need of that, its how I do my revision.Post more questions would do to me instead of reps. :p:




    13 exams next month (((((((((((((((((((
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Ah nah no need of that, its how I do my revision.Post more questions would do to me instead of reps. :p:




    13 exams next month (((((((((((((((((((
    Ouch

    I thought I had it bad with 10!
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    (Original post by lil_miss_rapunzel)
    Ouch

    I thought I had it bad with 10!
    Join the bad club.
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    WOW 13exams, i can't even cope with 7 exams.
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    Quick question, what happens to the the strand in transcription that isnt used as a template for mRNA? does it just reform?
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    (Original post by conorf199)
    Quick question, what happens to the the strand in transcription that isnt used as a template for mRNA? does it just reform?
    Don't take my word on this. I haven't started revision so this is just from what I remember from class like 2 months ago :s..

    Complementary nucleotides join that strand re-forming the DNA. Some enzymes(Can't remember what they're called) are involved in joining the phosphate-sugar back bone and hydrogen bonds form between the original strand and the new strand.
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    (Original post by MasterJomi)
    Don't take my word on this. I haven't started revision so this is just from what I remember from class like 2 months ago :s..

    Complementary nucleotides join that strand re-forming the DNA. Some enzymes(Can't remember what they're called) are involved in joining the phosphate-sugar back bone and hydrogen bonds form between the original strand and the new strand.
    These enzymes work both ways: The one you are talking of is DNA polymerase.
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    Module 2 - Biotechnology and gene technologies

    2 types of cloning

    Reproductive - Production of an individual who's genotype matches that of the existing individual

    Non-reproductive - Replacement cells who's genotyple matches that of the existing individual e.g. possiblity of regeneration of heart tissue.


    Vegetative propagation

    English Elm Tree:
    - Ulnus Procera
    - Genetically identical
    - Reproduces asexually
    - Grows suckers from the roots as a result of disease or destruction of the main trunk.

    Artificial Vegetative propagation

    Taking cuttings - stem is cut and treated with plants hormones to encourage root growth.

    Grafting - shoot is joined with an already growing root and stem
    - graft is genetically identical

    Modern methods - Tissue culture also known as micropropagation
    Plants must have been:
    - genetically engineered
    - have no natural methods of asexual reproduction
    - are desirable hybrids and do not breed true.


    Process:
    1) Explant is taken from the plant to be cloned
    2) In aseptic conditions the explant is placed in a nutrient growth medium which consists of plant hormones, vitamins, AA and sucrose >>> stimulates mitosis
    3) Forms a mass of undifferentiated cells called a callus
    4) Callus subdivides >> increases number of plants
    5) Single callus cells are placed in a new growth medium consisting of plant hormones - auxins and cytokines >> triggers differentiation into roots and shoots
    6) Forms genetically identical plantlets
    7) Transferred into sterile soil


    Advantages and disadvantages of cloning plants in agriculture

    Advantages
    - Can be used to make clones of plants that do not reproduce sexually to set seed e.g. banana plants
    - Can be used to make clones of trangenic plants
    - Uniform plants makes harvesting easier.

    Disadvantages
    - Labour intensive
    - Sterile conditions are needed
    - All susceptible to the same pathogen, pest species or change in climate.
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    Do we need to know how animals are genetically modified?

    The Heinemann book only mentions how rice and microorganisms are genetically modified, but not animals ? In animals.. I assume the desired genes are placed into the animal when it's in the embryonic stage so that all cells have the desired gene?
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    (Original post by smflesh)
    Do we need to know how animals are genetically modified?

    The Heinemann book only mentions how rice and microorganisms are genetically modified, but not animals ? In animals.. I assume the desired genes are placed into the animal when it's in the embryonic stage so that all cells have the desired gene?
    No need. Only the cloning of animals is required, and artifical selection.

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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    No need. Only the cloning of animals is required, and artifical selection.

    Thanking you!
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    *yawns* I am too lazy to post stuff.... any questions post it up also quote me... otherwise i wont be able to reply back
    • Thread Starter
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    *yawns* I am too lazy to post stuff.... any questions post it up also quote me... otherwise i wont be able to reply back
    lol you've been working hard lately:cool: but that is good because helping others allows you to remember thing better. Anyways, i was hoping if you could tell me more about how rice is genetically modified to increase protein level?:p: thxn bytheway
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    Hi can anyone tell me how i can attach my notes onto a post? By the end of the day I should hopefully have done a whole powerpoint on module 3, ecosystems and sustainability which id like to distribute out. Ta


    NB Dont worry figured it out....use post a reply instead of quick reply :
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    Cloning animals

    - Totipotent - capable of differentiating into any type of adult cell.

    Artificially cloning animals

    2 methods:
    - Splitting embryos
    - Nuclear transfer

    Splitting embryos
    1) Male and Female organisms with desired traits are selected
    2) Collect sperm from male
    3) Collect eggs from female
    4) In vitro fertilisation
    5) Subdivide resulting embryos
    6) Embryos implanted into surrogates
    7) Clones produced.

    Superovulation - hormones used to stimulate the ovaries to produce a large number of eggs (oocytes) at the same time >> increases stock.

    Nuclear transfer
    1) Cells removed from mammary gland of an organism
    2) Egg (ovum) removed from another organism
    3) Mammary cells grown in a culture
    4) Nucleus removed from egg by micropipette
    5) Mammary cell with nucleus and enuclueated egg are fused by electrofusion
    6) Mitosis occurs
    7) Embryos implanted into surrogates uterus
    8) Clones produced.


    Advantages and disadvantages of cloning animals

    Advantages
    - Prevents rare animals from becoming extinct - cloning preserves the species.
    - Fast reproduction of transgenic animals
    - Animals giving high yields can be produced

    Disadvantages
    - May have low quality of life
    - Success rate is low
    - Genetic uniformity - increases susceptibility to disease.
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    (Original post by Remarqable M)
    lol you've been working hard lately:cool: but that is good because helping others allows you to remember thing better. Anyways, i was hoping if you could tell me more about how rice is genetically modified to increase protein level?:p: thxn bytheway
    Hey bro. Sure the process which I am aware of is GM golden rice .. is that which you were actually asking of? If so here goes:
    Basically people living in highland areas and areas around the coastal usually get into problem (deficiency) because the food they eating has barely any % of Vit.A and we know lack of which causes Night -Blindness besides weak immune system.So geneticists came up with how about substituting one form of Vit.A somehow into their daily diet.
    Note:Vit.A = 2X beta-carotene. So in a sense carotene is a precursor.
    Ok enough of the side info:
    Carotene is an orange pigment found in carrots and orange looking plants.Geneticists extract b-carotene producing gene and such that insert it into a vector(from plant daffodil). In this case vector is a bacteria.During this process two enzymes are needed one is phyotene synthase(from the plant) and other being carotene desaturase(from the bacteria)Dont think we need to remember these anyhow.
    So gene + promoters added to the bacteria.The nature of bacteria is to infect new plant embryos with the modified gene.
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    Finally got the powerpoint on Module 3, ecosystems and sustainability done now, literally!

    It may look long but i can guarantee that it is much shorter than the text book...ive chopped a lot of the stuff out and tried to get to the point as often as possible.

    Pass it out to whomever you please and I hope it is of help



    Module 3.pptx
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    ill try and do one for the other modules too so there is stuff for the entire unit
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    (Original post by afhussain)
    ill try and do one for the other modules too so there is stuff for the entire unit
    Very good. Do the others please
 
 
 
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