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    (Original post by conorf199)
    Can somebody think of a clear cut way of distinguishing between 'operant conditioning' and 'classical conditioning'? As they are relatively similar
    Classical conditioning – a stimulus that already leads to a response is replaced by a different stimulus

    Operant conditioning – a behaviour is picked out and either reinforced or punished to make it more or less common

    Classical condition – responds to stimulus different to one that normally elicits response

    e.g. the smell of food is replaced by the sound of a bell to stimulate salivation.

    Operant conditioning – carries out an action to obtain a reward / avoid a punishment/

    Deals with the modification of a voluntary behaviour.

    e.g. Skinner box

    So you could say one (classical) acts to modify or replace the stimulus that leads to a given response, and the other (operant) to modify or refine a response.



    In classical conditioning, the animal learns to respond to a stimulus which is different from the one that normally elicits a response.
    e.g. the smell of food is replaced by the sound of a bell to stimulate salivation.

    In operant conditioning an animal learns to carry out a particular action in order to obtain a reward or avoid an unpleasant effect. It deals with the modification of a voluntary behaviour.
    e.g. as will be explained later, rats getting a reward for pressing a bar in a box

    So you could say one (classical) acts to modify or replace the stimulus that leads to a given response, and the other (operant) to modify or refine a response.


    Sorry this is copied and pasted from a power point i made so first 2 sentences are what i put on the slides, the rest is what i read in the notes
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    (Original post by zoop)
    What do you mean by this?
    As we all know dna is acidic such that it carries Negative charge due its Phosphate back bone.So all fragments head towards positive side.[/QUOTE]

    Aren't acidic substances positive due to the high concentration of H+ ions? I'm probs wrong but don't quite get why it can be acidic & negative and therefore attracted towards the positive side.

    Btw this is a really good explanation, thank you!![/QUOTE]
    Sorry for causing much of a confusion I see what you mean there but DNA is overall negative due to the amount of phosphate groups (which are ions) so it heads towards +ve terminal..
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    Hey can somebody explain "organisation of the nervous system" to me - are neurones part of the nervous system?
    becasue on the revision guide it refers to the Autonomic nerones and in the text book it says Autnomic Nervous system?
    How do they relate - im really confused

    & also which past papers are you guys practising? thanks
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    (Original post by Ecstacy.)
    Hey can somebody explain "organisation of the nervous system" to me - are neurones part of the nervous system?
    becasue on the revision guide it refers to the Autonomic nerones and in the text book it says Autnomic Nervous system?
    How do they relate - im really confused

    & also which past papers are you guys practising? thanks
    Hey We just finished CNS along with muscles and all. Our tutor didnt go into much depth except for the few stuff he mentioned.
    CNS => Spinal cord + Brain.
    Peripheral Nervous system => Autonomic Nervous system + Somativ Nervous system.
    Now what you need to know is that the Autonomic Nervous system controls factors which are not voluntary,consists of motor neurones and sensory neurones.Now ANS subdivides into : Paraympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous system.
    Parasympathetic System:
    Inhibits the factor being controlled for. example: Relaxing of the smooth muscles of the digestive system,Slowing of the SAN fire rate,Dilation of the pupil while Sympathetic system does all the opposite in a sense it acts same as the "adrenaline".
    This was just a short summary of what I could recall, there still is much more to know such as what ganglionic routes they take and maybe few more points.

    A neurone is nothing but a nerve cell while nerves are bunch of neurones stacked one over the other with perinerium sheet.
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    Is it possible to get heterozygous recessive? If a genotype is heterozygous isn't it assumed to be of the form AaBb?:confused:
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    (Original post by Sakujo)
    Is it possible to get heterozygous recessive? If a genotype is heterozygous isn't it assumed to be of the form AaBb?:confused:
    No I dont think so cuz dominant always dominates over the recessive unless we have a scenario where this dominant allele when activated inhibits itself in a sense which makes the recessive appear?(totally made it up lol but yea might work ).
    Genotype: AaBb
    Gametes: Aa AB Ab Bb
    =} I think
    Another example: WWXXYyZZ <--- A plant geneotype.
    So seeing some are diploids.
    It would be WXYyZ so you endup with
    Gametes:
    WXYZ and WXyZ
    Possible gametes.
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    No I dont think so cuz dominant always dominates over the recessive unless we have a scenario where this dominant allele when activated inhibits itself in a sense which makes the recessive appear?(totally made it up lol but yea might work ).
    Genotype: AaBb
    Gametes: Aa AB Ab Bb
    =} I think
    Another example: WWXXYyZZ <--- A plant geneotype.
    So seeing some are diploids.
    It would be WXYyZ so you endup with
    Gametes:
    WXYZ and WXyZ
    Possible gametes.
    AaBb=

    AB Ab aB ab Gametes.
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    No I dont think so cuz dominant always dominates over the recessive unless we have a scenario where this dominant allele when activated inhibits itself in a sense which makes the recessive appear?(totally made it up lol but yea might work ).
    Genotype: AaBb
    Gametes: Aa AB Ab Bb
    =} I think
    Another example: WWXXYyZZ <--- A plant geneotype.
    So seeing some are diploids.
    It would be WXYyZ so you endup with
    Gametes:
    WXYZ and WXyZ
    Possible gametes.
    I didn't understand what you wrote but did you mean that it could refer to AaBB and AABb aswell as AaBb? I guess you're right but I'm wondering how to refer to AaBB, homozygous B heterozygous A?
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    (Original post by skatealexia)
    AaBb=

    AB Ab aB ab Gametes.
    Ah thanks for correcting me.
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    (Original post by Sakujo)
    I didn't understand what you wrote but did you mean that it could refer to AaBB and AABb aswell as AaBb? I guess you're right but I'm wondering how to refer to AaBB, homozygous B heterozygous A?
    hmm....I guess it would be 50% homo 50% hetero ?
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    You can't have henterozygous recessive.... Bb Aa... .. only homozygous recessive.
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    (Original post by skatealexia)
    You can't have henterozygous recessive.... Bb Aa... .. only homozygous recessive.
    Yep,thats right :yep:
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    (Original post by skatealexia)
    You can't have henterozygous recessive.... Bb Aa... .. only homozygous recessive.
    Is hentero some kinda new thing? :p: - I kid, I kid :rofl:

    Am done doing notes on module 1, and nearly on module 2 too! Just 3 and 4 left, god 3 is sooo boring. :bored:
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    Yes, its a new form
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    (Original post by skatealexia)
    Yes, its a new form
    Its a Pokemon :O
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    (Original post by win2kpro)
    Is hentero some kinda new thing? :p: - I kid, I kid :rofl:

    Am done doing notes on module 1, and nearly on module 2 too! Just 3 and 4 left, god 3 is sooo boring. :bored:
    :yep:
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    Anyone? :

    -Outline the process involved in the genetic engineering of golden rice
    -Outline how animals can be genetically engineered for xenotransplantation

    The book I have doesnt seem to do a very good job on these two points, especially a rubbish job on the second one.

    Any help would be amazing! +rep available :gah:
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    (Original post by win2kpro)
    Anyone? :

    -Outline the process involved in the genetic engineering of golden rice
    -Outline how animals can be genetically engineered for xenotransplantation

    The book I have doesnt seem to do a very good job on these two points, especially a rubbish job on the second one.

    Any help would be amazing! +rep available :gah:
    Sure ^.^
    Ok here goes.....

    Golden rice is named after its color which is due to the high proportion of B-carotene which is a precursor of Retinol( Vit.A) i.e 2x beta-carotene = one retinol.
    So to produce B.car generating rice geneticists do the following:
    1) They took out two genes responsible for the generation of two enzymes one from the daffodil plant (Phyotene synthase) and the other from the bacteria (carotene desaturase).
    2)In the next step the gene from the plant is added to the vector in this case another bacterial plasmid along with promoters.
    3)Nature of this bacteria is to infect the plant embryos such that the newly germinated seeds now carry the genes required to produce B.carotene.
    mixture-of Promoters are added earlier to allow rna-polymerase to stick onto the operon since these genes are alien so are the promoters.

    As for the xeno-transplants all I can recall is that: say for example pig cells carry glycoprotein aka antigens which mark it as foreign basically what geneticists did to overcome immune response was to somehow destroy/kill/inhibit/remove the gene responsibil for the growth of that glycoportein.In this case GLUT-4GGTA-1 was the "enzyme" with its removal they immune response attack was less frequent although there still are riks.
    Some which are:
    *The pig might transfer some sort of virus/bacteria which the body cant recognize.
    * Pigs unlike humans tend to live short so with that goes the life expectancy of the organ.
    * Religious issues
    *Moral: Are the gm pigs in good condition to live/survive? Is this in anyway beneficial.
    *More than one glyco-proteins could be responsible so the immune response might still kick in.

    EDIT: WITH A SLIGHT MODIFICATION!it turns out to be GGTA-1!ARGH NOT GLUT-4 wonder where I got this name from?
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Sure ^.^
    Ok here goes.....

    Golden rice is named after its color which is due to the high proportion of B-carotene which is a precursor of Retinol( Vit.A) i.e 2x beta-carotene = one retinol.
    So to produce B.car generating rice geneticists do the following:
    1) They took out two genes responsible for the generation of two enzymes one from the daffodil plant (Phyotene synthase) and the other from the bacteria (carotene desaturase).
    2)In the next step the gene from the plant is added to the vector in this case another bacterial plasmid along with promoters.
    3)Nature of this bacteria is to infect the plant embryos such that the newly germinated seeds now carry the genes required to produce B.carotene.
    mixture-of Promoters are added earlier to allow rna-polymerase to stick onto the operon since these genes are alien so are the promoters.

    As for the xeno-transplants all I can recall is that: say for example pig cells carry glycoprotein aka antigens which mark it as foreign basically what geneticists did to overcome immune response was to somehow destroy/kill/inhibit/remove the gene responsibil for the growth of that glycoportein.In this case GLUT-4GGTA-1 was the "enzyme" with its removal they immune response attack was less frequent although there still are riks.
    Some which are:
    *The pig might transfer some sort of virus/bacteria which the body cant recognize.
    * Pigs unlike humans tend to live short so with that goes the life expectancy of the organ.
    * Religious issues
    *Moral: Are the gm pigs in good condition to live/survive? Is this in anyway beneficial.
    *More than one glyco-proteins could be responsible so the immune response might still kick in.

    EDIT: WITH A SLIGHT MODIFICATION!it turns out to be GGTA-1!ARGH NOT GLUT-4 wonder where I got this name from?
    Cheers mate, will have another read in a second to make it all sink down into my brain and then make notes on it :p: -

    PS. I always liked Vegeta the most in Dragon Ball Z too :p:
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    (Original post by win2kpro)
    Cheers mate, will have another read in a second to make it all sink down into my brain and then make notes on it :p: -

    PS. I always liked Vegeta the most in Dragon Ball Z too :p:
    Haha thanks for the compliment :cool: I am starting to like these earthlings. Oh also for the rep!
    DBZ FTW!
 
 
 
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