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OCR 2010 A2 Biology Unit 2 - Control, Genome and Environment watch

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    (Original post by clad in armour)
    http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120078/bio37.swf
    its off this animation, do you think you could explain perhaps please?
    The animation is just explaining how restriction endonuclease enzymes work, so in the first case, it was just to show that the two sticky ends formed can rejoin together on the action of the enzyme DNA ligase. In actual cases of uses of restriction enzymes, such as those in which you are trying to insert a specific gene into a plamid (like with genetically engineering insulin), you use the same restriction enzyme to cut both the DNA that holds the gene and the plasmid, so that the plasmid and gene have sticky ends that are complementary to one another and they can be sealed together on the action of DNA ligase to form a recombinant DNA molecule.
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    Urrgh. Did so little biology today. Have so much to go over. But physics needs a doing! Star, planets, galaxies, at least its interesting stuff!
    Sticky ends? cause the ends are unpaired bases which makes it easier to form OH bonds again :cool:
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    The animation is just explaining how restriction endonuclease enzymes work, so in the first case, it was just to show that the two sticky ends formed can rejoin together on the action of the enzyme DNA ligase. In actual cases of uses of restriction enzymes, such as those in which you are trying to insert a specific gene into a plamid (like with genetically engineering insulin), you use the same restriction enzyme to cut both the DNA that holds the gene and the plasmid, so that the plasmid and gene have sticky ends that are complementary to one another and they can be sealed together on the action of DNA ligase to form a recombinant DNA molecule.
    oh ye, lol I hadnt even considered that lol, so in actual genetic engineering it would used on both the plasmid and gene for example,
    how do they know that they arent cutting in to a gene thats essential for survival, I was under the impression that they need to just the gene into the plasmid anywhere
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    (Original post by clad in armour)
    oh ye, lol I hadnt even considered that lol, so in actual genetic engineering it would used on both the plasmid and gene for example,
    how do they know that they arent cutting in to a gene thats essential for survival, I was under the impression that they need to just the gene into the plasmid anywhere
    Exactly as Violin said. (extra info) just said although the very first recombinant Insulin wasnt made by restriction enzymes but the DNA was paired with Guanine nucleotides while the bacterial plasmid was paired with cytosine so then these two were joined together using base-pair rule.
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    (Original post by clad in armour)
    oh ye, lol I hadnt even considered that lol, so in actual genetic engineering it would used on both the plasmid and gene for example,
    how do they know that they arent cutting in to a gene thats essential for survival, I was under the impression that they need to just the gene into the plasmid anywhere
    Depends if insulin is being made which we know is by reverse transcription then there is no other gene other than that genome sequencing
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    (Original post by clad in armour)
    http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120078/bio37.swf
    its off this animation, do you think you could explain perhaps please?
    Where are you getting these from ? Do you have like a page with all the links directing to them ? Thanks.
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    I've decided to go on vacation for a while. Might be back later towards exam. See you for now. *waves*
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Depends if insulin is being made which we know is by reverse transcription then there is no other gene other than that genome sequencing
    Using the enzyme reverse transcriptase to produce the original DNA template strand. Then use DNA polymerase and free nucleotides to produce the other 'coding' strand and this produces cDNA. This can then be used with restriction enzymes to insert the gene into a bacteria plasmid, akak vector by annealing the sticky ends using DNA Ligase which catalyses the condensation reaction to form the sugar phosphate backbone.

    The plasmid is now recombinant.

    This can then be inserted into bacteria by treating with calcium salts and heat shock, also can be injected in by micropipettes or using viruses (insert their DNA into bacteria).

    If its taken up, the bacteria are called tansformed bacteria and are transgenic.

    I have barely done that page and i already like it

    Good for you violingirl, dont overwork, now is probs the best time to take some time off
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    I've decided to go on vacation for a while. Might be back later towards exam. See you for now. *waves*
    lol really ? wrong time to be taking one. bye though.
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    (Original post by Liverpool F.C.™)
    Where are you getting these from ? Do you have like a page with all the links directing to them ? Thanks.
    this
    awesome sig btw
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    (Original post by clad in armour)
    this
    awesome sig btw

    Hmm, i dont see his sig?

    Also, anywhere i could post them, i used to make tonnes, want to see peoples opinions?
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    (Original post by Falcon91)
    Hmm, i dont see his sig?

    Also, anywhere i could post them, i used to make tonnes, want to see peoples opinions?
    scroll further up
    and tonnes of what? animations?
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    (Original post by clad in armour)
    this
    awesome sig btw
    oh, thanks
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    (Original post by Liverpool F.C.™)
    lol really ? wrong time to be taking one. bye though.
    lol-from this thread I mean! I'm spending too much time reading stuff on here, than looking in my biology textbook! Bye. XD
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    Just died in the end of module 3 exam today. Serious revision starts now.
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    I've decided to go on vacation for a while. Might be back later towards exam. See you for now. *waves*
    C ya... good luck! Hmm I will probably do the same too... got maths and physics to prioritize now grr...
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    (Original post by buyingtheticket)
    Just died in the end of module 3 exam today. Serious revision starts now.
    Me too, we just had an end of unit mock today. Was horrible

    End of module 3 ? Still got module 4 left ? oooh, you guys need to hurry up.
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    Behaviour!

    There are two types of behaviour: Innate and Learned.

    Innate behaviours suit invertebrates well, as they do not look after their young, do not have a long life span, and they live solitary lives.

    Innate behaviours are genetically determined. They are rigid and inflexible. All members of the species will show the same type of behaviour and perform it in exactly the same way in reponse to exactly the same stimuli. Innate behaviours are any animal responses that do not have to be learned.

    There are 3 types of innate behaviour:

    1) Reflexes, in particular escape reflexes.
    2) kineses-orietation behaviour in which the organism increases its rate of movement when in unfavourable conditions, the movement is non-directional.

    3) taxis- this is oreintation behaviour, in which the direction is determined by a certain factor, such as light.

    Learned behaviour is any animal response which adapts with experience. Again, they are catergorised into several types:

    1) Habituation- this is where upon exposure to a repeated stimuli , wherby there is no reward or punishment the animal will no longer respond to it.

    2) Imprinting- where a younger animal associates itself with an older animal, usually the parents. It occurs in a sensitive region only and it vital to the animal learning skills such as flight in birds.

    3) Classical conditioning- when an animal learns to associate a pair of events and performs an action in relation to one in anticipation to the other.

    4) Operant conditioning- when the animal assocates a certain operation with a reward/punishment

    5) Insight learning- solving a problem and learning from it.

    very useful! and there's latent learning too? where it's not directly displayed until it's needed, e.g. a mouse learning it's environment which could help it escape a predator one day, when caught off guard
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    hi ppl
    what think you of this ?
    http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresource.../cloning.shtml
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    There ya go
    http://www.ibymegaupload.com/showthr...6-Bio-Jan-2010
    It says that the account has been suspended. Could you pm them to me? x
 
 
 
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