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    I'm a little confused with the gene technology stuff. The steps involved in sequencing of the genome of an organism.. there is BAC and chain termination reaction? When is each used?
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    hii. does anyone know what the founder effect is??
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Jeez I havent slept for over r23 hours straight and about to start Biology... :/
    lol you did this last time , i can never revise past 12 just impossible my brain just switches of , but then again i prefer to start 9 am
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    (Original post by nbailey8)
    I'm a little confused with the gene technology stuff. The steps involved in sequencing of the genome of an organism.. there is BAC and chain termination reaction? When is each used?

    Bac ? can i ask what book your using to revise . im using the green ocr book with the reptiles. It has a log paragraph on how to sequence a genome and doesnt mentio chai termanatio or bac.

    do we need to know about BAC ....
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    (Original post by nbailey8)
    I'm a little confused with the gene technology stuff. The steps involved in sequencing of the genome of an organism.. there is BAC and chain termination reaction? When is each used?
    I think we need to know both, but im not completely sure, best to just revise both
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    (Original post by chuck111)
    I think we need to know both, but im not completely sure, best to just revise both
    One is sequencing of a gene/base sequence - Chain termination. The other is sequecing of the genome - Sequencing of genomes using BACs. The Chain Termination reaction is in the Textbook as automated nucleotide sequencer. You need to know both.

    Chuck, how much have you revised for synoptics, as you have all these notes?
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    :hello:
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    :hello:
    Ohai thar

    :woo:

    Im busy...on a long break from revision :P

    How goes?
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    (Original post by Falcon91)
    Ohai thar

    :woo:

    Im busy...on a long break from revision :P

    How goes?
    got f212 and fp2 soon so gonna cruise on f215 in about an hour. Trolling around tsr for now
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    Hi,
    anything useful in the past 94 pages ??? it being rather close to the old exams i think that reading them all may waste some urgently vital revision times :p:

    what grades are everyone looking to get?
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    Guys, am I the only one that finds plant hormones THE MOST BORING TOPIC EVER?! I mean seriously, I've been revising it for about an hour this morning and it's just ridiculous. Why do we have to remember the names and effects of all the different hormones/enzymes etc
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    (Original post by Falcon91)
    Hmm, what havent we done yet...explain continuous and discontinuous variation with reference to the number of genes involved.
    CV= continunous variation
    DV= discontinous variation

    CV refers to the quantitative differences between phenotypes, these are phenotypic characteristics that show a wide range in varitaion and because of this there are intermediate categories and no distinct categories, examples include Height and mass in humans, length in corn cobs, milk yeild of cattle, egg production in poultry.

    DC variation refers to the qualitative differences between phenotypes. These characteristic fall into distinct catergories with no intermediate sub categories. Examples include eye colour, blood group, gender.

    Both of these can be controlled by more than one gene, however in the case of DC this will usually be one gene and the characteristic is described as being monogenic, or if it involved 2 or more genes then they will interact in an epistatic way so that one will mask the expression of the other one, reducing the amount of phenotypic variation that can take place.
    With DC:
    -different alleles present at a single locus have large effects on the phenotype
    -different gene loci have different effects on the phenotype
    -Examples include dominant, recessive and codominant patterns of inheritance.

    With CV:
    - different alleles at a single locus have small effects on the phenotype.
    -Many alleles can each have additive effects on the phenotype (these are called polygenes and the characterisitic is polygenic).
    -Always controlled by more than one gene.
    -affected more by environment than DC characteristics.

    Explain the significance of the various concepts of species and how they are used to classify organisms
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    (Original post by s_a_r_a)
    hii. does anyone know what the founder effect is??
    Yes, it relates to genetic drift. The rate of genetic drift can be increased in small pop. due to 2 things:
    1) the bottleneck effect- this is shrinkage of the population rapidly to a small size. For example, a tree falling on a pop. of ants and by chance happens to crush most of the larger ants.

    2) The founder effect- when pop. break into smaller ones, and become isolated from one another. The allele frequency in each of these populations will depend on the individuals present in them, and the conditions of the envionment they are in.
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    (Original post by HELPME-ology)
    What are peoples predictions on topics to come up on this exam?
    I think it'll be a lot of genetics, one question on brain and nervous system/ muscles,
    and a lot of biodiversity stuff which will tie into being part of the synoptic part of the paper..
    .its all just way too much...too broad a subject and sucks cos it'll be a synoptic paper
    So even hating this module will make it harder......arghhhhhh
    I reckon cloning will be there because therres so much about it and it ties in with a lot of things.
    -Sampling techniques because if i can remember correctly it wasnt on any of the papers for last year's june module or the specimen paper.
    -Im pretty sure theyll be a calculation question on either hardy-weinberg allele frequencies or chi squared test since the examiners love to make us do calculations!
    -Oh and MUSCLES! They weren't on the specimen paper and they are quite hard to get your head around - theres bound to be at least 1 question on muscles. (maybe linking with knowledge on previous unit about respiration/mitocondria )

    I predicted that there was going to be an experiment question on F214 its a shame i didn't understand that experiment but i had a feeling at least one of the experiments in that unit would come up
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    Can Some one Explain what is phylogentic species Concept???
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    (Original post by Varciani)
    Guys, am I the only one that finds plant hormones THE MOST BORING TOPIC EVER?! I mean seriously, I've been revising it for about an hour this morning and it's just ridiculous. Why do we have to remember the names and effects of all the different hormones/enzymes etc
    I'll summarise it for you

    Plants, like animals need to respond to the environment, to reduce the stress on them prevent them from being eaten, and allowing them to survive to reproductive age.

    Tropisms- these are directional repsonses in which the direction of the response is governed by the direction of the external stimuli.

    There are different types of tropisms:
    1) Geotropism
    2) phototropism
    3) Thigmotropism
    4) chemotropism

    Plant responses are coordinated by hormones, but these are known as growth regulators as they are produced in various parts of plant tissue and not from endocrine glands.
    Hormones are specific, only act on target cells.

    The main hormones in plants:
    -Auxins
    -Cytokinins
    -Gibberellins
    -Abscinsic acid
    -Ethene.
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    :hello:
    :hello: Iby!
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    :hello: Iby!
    Hey Violin waddup =} How is the revision kicking?
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    Explain the significance of the various concepts of species and how they are used to classify organisms
    There are two species concepts:

    1) Biological species concept - A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring and are reproductively isolated from other groups

    This is a less accurate definition of species, the problems associated with it are the fact it distinguishes between extinct and extant species and there could be problems in observing the breeding such as ethical issues of laboratory and georgraphical terrain. In addition organisms may reproduce asexually in some cases.

    This is used

    2) Phylogenetic species concept - A group of organisms that are similar in morphology, embryology, physiology and behavioural characteristics and occup the same niche (the role of a species in an ecosystem).

    This places much more emphasis on objective and quantitative analysis such as DNA analysis by comparing genes/DNA (examples such as Cytochrome C). They can tell you what is related and how closely by identifying a common ancestor and is based on evolution. Makes no distinction between Extinct and Extant species.

    They can be used to draw up clades which show the common ancestor and related species using cladistics - the hierachical classification of organisms, based on evolutionary ancestry.

    There are two types of clades that can be dran up using computer programs:
    1 - Monophyletic clades - A common/recent ancestor and all its descendant species are shown
    2 - Paraphyletic Clades - A common/recent ancestor is shown but not all of the descendant species are shown, some clades are excluded.

    Explain the term genetic code and transcription.
 
 
 
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