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    This is bullet point (a) for animal behaviour:

    explain the advantages to organisms of innate behaviour.

    I've not got many points for that. Any more would be ace thanks!

    Edit: from the spec
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    Desribe the two methods of cloning for animals.
    Bravo, that was very good. Helped refresh my memory too :woo:

    Although i remain scared out of my wits for this exam lol


    Cloning animals is utilisation of reproductive cloning which produces an embryo which is then implanted into surrogate mothers.
    2 Methods:

    1) IVF - An egg and sperm is harvested from two organisms of the same species (they can be chosen for certain desirable traits for farmers), the eggs taken are injected with the sperm to form the zygote. This is then grow in glasss tubes until an early embryo has formed. This is then planted into surrogate mothers and then can be born per norm.

    2) Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer - An egg cell is taken from an organism, and a body cell/Somatic cell is taken from another organism of the same species. The nucleus is removed from the egg cell so it is now called an enucleated egg cell, and the nuclus is extracted from the somatic cell and placed into the egg cell (using electro-fusion?). Then the zygote divides to form am embryo which is then implanted into surrogate mothers.

    For non-reproductive cloning, i.e. where an individual is not produced you can harvest the stem cells from the embryos (stem cells could be used to treat tissue/cellular disorders) however this has many ethical issues such as whether you are taking a potential life etc

    The advantages:
    1) Sterile and endangered animals can be reproduced
    2) Genetic traits that are desirable, e.g. high milk yield, is always passed on
    3) Animals can be produced at any time regardless of whether they are seuxually active or not

    Disadv:
    1)Undesirable genetic traits like a weak immune system is always passed on
    2) Evidence suggests they may not live as long
    3) Time consuming + expensive due to labour costs.

    Im struggling to think of things we havent covered lol.
    Explain the differences between batch and continuous cultures.
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    (Original post by Falcon91)
    Bravo, that was very good. Helped refresh my memory too :woo:

    Although i remain scared out of my wits for this exam lol


    Cloning animals is utilisation of reproductive cloning which produces an embryo which is then implanted into surrogate mothers.
    2 Methods:

    1) IVF - An egg and sperm is harvested from two organisms of the same species (they can be chosen for certain desirable traits for farmers), the eggs taken are injected with the sperm to form the zygote. This is then grow in glasss tubes until an early embryo has formed. This is then planted into surrogate mothers and then can be born per norm.

    2) Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer - An egg cell is taken from an organism, and a body cell/Somatic cell is taken from another organism of the same species. The nucleus is removed from the egg cell so it is now called an enucleated egg cell, and the nuclus is extracted from the somatic cell and placed into the egg cell (using electro-fusion?). Then the zygote divides to form am embryo which is then implanted into surrogate mothers.

    For non-reproductive cloning, i.e. where an individual is not produced you can harvest the stem cells from the embryos (stem cells could be used to treat tissue/cellular disorders) however this has many ethical issues such as whether you are taking a potential life etc

    The advantages:
    1) Sterile and endangered animals can be reproduced
    2) Genetic traits that are desirable, e.g. high milk yield, is always passed on
    3) Animals can be produced at any time regardless of whether they are seuxually active or not

    Disadv:
    1)Undesirable genetic traits like a weak immune system is always passed on
    2) Evidence suggests they may not live as long
    3) Time consuming + expensive due to labour costs.

    Im struggling to think of things we havent covered lol.
    Explain the differences between batch and continuous cultures.
    Nice!
    Batch process is basically where the micro-organism along with nutrient broth are added into a setup for oen time only with all the min. requirements for the fermentation to take place the process starts.Only toxic gases are removed whereas in continuous process you have a constant input of Atp substrate along with removal of wastes, maintenance of PH + Temperature. Kinda multitasking here maths + bio lol :/
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    (Original post by zoop)
    This is bullet point (a) for animal behaviour:

    explain the advantages to organisms of innate behaviour.

    I've not got many points for that. Any more would be ace thanks!

    Edit: from the spec
    Theyre not too bad, they depend upon the example of the organism your given but ive outlined the behaviour + advantage.

    Advantages:
    1) Reflexes such as escape reflexes...avoid predation, such as earthworms responding to vibrations on the ground and so they retreat underground to avoid any danger

    2) Kinesis - increasing the rate or turning and movement, this is a response to a non-directional stimulus, this places you into favourable conditions. An example is...woodlice randomly turning in areas of low humidity, they turn more until they find areas with higher humidity, this allows them to conserve water and so place themselves in damp conditions.

    3) Taxis - directional response to a directional stimulus, places you in favourable conditions again. woodlice show negativephototaxis, this is to help them find sheltered areas which means they are safe from predation.

    They are more useful for inverterbrates, as they have a shorter lifespan, are isolated from other members of the same species and there is no parental care.

    Also innate behaviour is rigid and inflexible, which means it cannot be changed and this means it will always provide you with an advantageous response. Same across members of that species and is genetically passed to offspring.

    Hope that helped
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Nice!
    Batch process is basically where the micro-organism along with nutrient broth are added into a setup for oen time only with all the min. requirements for the fermentation to take place the process starts.Only toxic gases are removed whereas in continuous process you have a constant input of Atp substrate along with removal of wastes, maintenance of PH + Temperature. Kinda multitasking here maths + bio lol :/
    Haha, cool. Hope its going well for you. I should really do more chemistry and computing instead of biology >.>
    I spend too long on this thread in my 'breaks' :P looks like im spammin' otherwise.
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    (Original post by Falcon91)
    Haha, cool. Hope its going well for you. I should really do more chemistry and computing instead of biology >.>
    I spend too long on this thread in my 'breaks' :P looks like im spammin' otherwise.
    hah 10 days to go for this one should be great :woo:
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    (Original post by Falcon91)
    Im struggling to think of things we havent covered lol.
    additional advantages of IVF

    sperm/eggs can be frozen and kept for long periods of time
    sperm/eggs can be produced en masse (e.g. superovulation) so many animals with desirable traits can be reproduced using surrogates
    sperm/eggs can be frozen and transported all over the world so the best traits can be passed on to offspring

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    Alright Time I shut my view over this thread for a day or two.
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Alright Time I shut my view over this thread for a day or two.
    why?
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    right
    Plant hormones....


    Plant Hormones
    Abscisic Acid
    The production of ABA is accentuated by stresses such as water loss and freezing temperatures.
    • Stimulates the closure of stomata (water stress brings about an increase in ABA synthesis).
    • Inhibits shoot growth but will not have as much affect on roots or may even promote growth of roots.
    • Induces seeds to synthesize storage proteins.
    • Inhibits the affect of gibberellins on stimulating de novo synthesis of a-amylase.
    • Has some effect on induction and maintanance of dormancy.
    • Induces gene transcription especially for proteinase inhibitors in response to wounding which may explain an apparent role in pathogen defense.

    Auxins
    • Stimulates cell elongation
    • Stimulates cell division in the cambium and, in combination with cytokinins in tissue culture
    • Stimulates differentiation of phloem and xylem
    • Stimulates root initiation on stem cuttings and lateral root development in tissue culture
    • Mediates the tropistic response of bending in response to gravity and light
    • The auxin supply from the apical bud suppresses growth of lateral buds
    • Delays leaf senescence
    • Can inhibit or promote (via ethylene stimulation) leaf and fruit abscission
    • Can induce fruit setting and growth in some plants
    • Involved in assimilate movement toward auxin possibly by an effect on phloem transport
    • Delays fruit ripening
    • Promotes flowering in Bromeliads
    • Stimulates growth of flower parts
    • Promotes (via ethylene production) femaleness in dioecious flowers
    • Stimulates the production of ethylene at high concentrations

    Cytokinins
    Cytokinin is generally found in higher concentrations in meristematic regions and growing tissues. They are believed to be synthesized in the roots and translocated via the xylem to shoots.
    • Stimulates cell division.
    • Stimulates morphogenesis (shoot initiation/bud formation) in tissue culture.
    • Stimulates the growth of lateral buds-release of apical dominance.
    • Stimulates leaf expansion resulting from cell enlargement.
    • May enhance stomatal opening in some species.
    • Promotes the conversion of etioplasts into chloroplasts via stimulation of chlorophyll synthesis.

    Ethylene
    Ethylene is produced in all higher plants and is produced from methionine in essentially all tissues. Production of ethylene varies with the type of tissue, the plant species, and also the stage of development.
    • Stimulates the release of dormancy.
    • Stimulates shoot and root growth and differentiation (triple response)
    • May have a role in adventitious root formation.
    • Stimulates leaf and fruit abscission.
    • Stimulates Bromiliad flower induction.
    • Induction of femaleness in dioecious flowers.
    • Stimulates flower opening.
    • Stimulates flower and leaf senescence.
    • Stimulates fruit ripening.


    Gibberellins
    Gibberellins are believed to be synthesized in young tissues of the shoot and also the developing seed. It is uncertain whether young root tissues also produce gibberellins.
    • Stimulate stem elongation by stimulating cell division and elongation.
    • Stimulates bolting/flowering in response to long days.
    • Breaks seed dormancy in some plants which require stratification or light to induce germination.
    • Stimulates enzyme production (a-amylase) in germinating cereal grains for mobilization of seed reserves.
    • Induces maleness in dioecious flowers (sex expression).
    • Can cause parthenocarpic (seedless) fruit development.
    • Can delay senescence in leaves and citrus fruits.
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    (Original post by The TSR Star.)
    why?
    need to focus on maths and my f212 module. =} I will be back I promise
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    I've made some revision notes on the topic, they're all here if anybody's interested
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    urgghhh ive completley slacked on bio for the last couple of days, my maths exam is on tuesday and ive barely revised for it -.-, ill be posting the plant response/animal response cards later today though
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    (Original post by Falcon91)
    Theyre not too bad, they depend upon the example of the organism your given but ive outlined the behaviour + advantage.

    Advantages:
    1) Reflexes such as escape reflexes...avoid predation, such as earthworms responding to vibrations on the ground and so they retreat underground to avoid any danger

    2) Kinesis - increasing the rate or turning and movement, this is a response to a non-directional stimulus, this places you into favourable conditions. An example is...woodlice randomly turning in areas of low humidity, they turn more until they find areas with higher humidity, this allows them to conserve water and so place themselves in damp conditions.

    3) Taxis - directional response to a directional stimulus, places you in favourable conditions again. woodlice show negativephototaxis, this is to help them find sheltered areas which means they are safe from predation.

    They are more useful for inverterbrates, as they have a shorter lifespan, are isolated from other members of the same species and there is no parental care.

    Also innate behaviour is rigid and inflexible, which means it cannot be changed and this means it will always provide you with an advantageous response. Same across members of that species and is genetically passed to offspring.

    Hope that helped
    Thanks, that's really helpful! Here are another two of the spec points I had trouble with in the same Chapter (animal behaviour):

    (e) describe, using one example, the advantages of social behaviour in primates

    (f) discuss how the links between a range of human behaviours and the dopamine receptor DRD 4 may contribute to the understanding of human behaviour

    Thanks!!
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    (Original post by radical07)
    The way I've learnt it:
    Spoiler:
    Show

    Wild Einkorn wheat of AuAu was bred with wild grass of BB

    The result was AuB - sterile as uneven number of chromosomes so incomplete meiosis

    However a mutation doubled the chromosome number to give:

    AuAuBB. This was bred with goat grass of DD

    The result was AuBD (again sterile)

    Again another mutation produced AuAuBBDD which is modern wheat.
    (Original post by student92)
    Spoiler:
    Show
    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    Modern bread wheat has been developed from both wild species and domestic species of wheat. Most wild species of plant are diploid (2n=14), but they have a property known as polyploidy that allows them to hold more that one set of chromosomes in the nucleus. Modern bread wheat is hexaploid (6n=42), so its nucleus and cells are large. It consists of 3 genotypes AuAuBBDD from 3 different specied.
    Spoiler:
    Show

    1. Wild Einkorn (AuAu) is domesticated, to alter the phenotype.
    2. Domesticated Einkorn (AuAu) (2n=14) is bred with Wild grass (BB) (2n=14)
    3. This forms a sterile hybrid of AuB (emmer wheat). This undergos a mutation to double the chromosome number, to AuAuBB (4n=28)
    4. Emmer wheat (AuAuBB) is bred with wild goat grass (2n=14)( DD) to produce another sterile hybrid AuBD.
    5. A mutation occurs to double the chromosome number (AuAuBBDD) (6n=42) THis is modern bread wheat.
    Thanx so much, the book was confusing me. So much to remember doesnt help its incredibly boring aswell.
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    (Original post by Falcon91)
    Bravo, that was very good. Helped refresh my memory too :woo:

    Im struggling to think of things we havent covered lol.
    Explain the differences between batch and continuous cultures.
    Nice. I'm very scared too. Because bio exams are unpredicatable and I haven't done many past papers yet, and when I attempt questions in the book, my answers are different to those at the back.

    Most industrial processes will require the use of microorganisms on a very large scale. Large fermentor tanks can be used which have the capacity to store tens of thousands of litres, and the conditions inside them can be manipulated in order to allow for the maximum yeild of organisms, or if you are intending on producing primary or secondary metabolites.

    Industrial fermentors can work into 2 ways. You can have batch cultures and continous cultures. With Batch cultures you have a started culture of microorganisms and a set amount of nutrients which are added to the tank, these are left for a set period of time, at the end of the process the products are harvested and the tank is emptied. Nothing is added or removed during the process. There are advantages & disadvantages to using batch cultures. If contamination occurs you only lose a batch, they are easy to set up and maintain, they are less efficient as they do not operate continously, they are good for producing secondary metabolites, the growth rate is slow, because nutrient supply falls.
    With continious cultures the conditions within the tank are constantly maintained, more nutrients are added and products are removed (including waste products), the growth rate is faster, they are harder to maintain and set up, if contamination occurs it is costly and wasteful, they are more efficient as operate continously, they are good in producing primary metabolites.

    Whats the scientific name for a gerbil..? lol jk, ...um...Desribe effects of humans on galapagos!
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    (Original post by ibysaiyan)
    Alright Time I shut my view over this thread for a day or two.
    Nooooo! Multitask like meeee. My tight week is going to be 16th, 17th, 18th, where I have Bio, chem, Maths &physics. :eek3: :eek3: :eek3:
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    (Original post by ViolinGirl)
    Nice. I'm very scared too. Because bio exams are unpredicatable and I haven't done many past papers yet, and when I attempt questions in the book, my answers are different to those at the back.
    Whats the scientific name for a gerbil..? lol jk, ...um...Desribe effects of humans on galapagos!
    I get the same with this book, its completely ridiculous in some of the answers, im like yeah yeah i know it *checks back* oh FFS.

    LOL, just give me 3 pics of gerbils and ill give it a shot, the bionomial naming system of the Genus Species

    Anyway. Yeah, im using chucks revision cards (thanks btw) for looking at synoptic stuff, i know a lot of it but smoking is quite specific so i dont like it lol because im finding it hard to memorize without erasing some stuff from this module

    The humans on galapagos:

    -Firstly, blame the people in the 19th century, they took giant tortoises as they can survive on little food for a long time on sailing journeys and then they were eaten. This has greatly reduced their numbers to just 1 (Lonesome George).

    -Increasing pollution due to human activity and populations rising on the island

    -Exploitation of certain resources, examples are over-fishing of sea-cucumbers which greatly reduced the population number as well as over-fishing of sharks for their fins reducing numbers again.

    -Introduction of alien species to the local environment causes a few effects. Firstly, something about goats eating a lot of native plants and trampling which causes the reduction in biodiversity and species diversity. Secondly, foreign plants such as the red quinine tree which aggressively competes with local species and outcompetes them causing many of them to die out.

    Measures to try and fix:
    -Quarantine systems, whereby tourists and visitors have their transports checked for foreign species etc
    -Conservation and protection of certain species such as Lonesome George
    -Captive breeding programmes for those animals which have become endangered due to human activities
    -Introduction of natural predators to the alien species which have been introduced and destroy native species

    Describe gel electrophoresis (were running out of questions :P)
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    gah, i'm so gonna fail this exam right now.
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    (Original post by zoop)
    Thanks, that's really helpful! Here are another two of the spec points I had trouble with in the same Chapter (animal behaviour):

    (e) describe, using one example, the advantages of social behaviour in primates

    (f) discuss how the links between a range of human behaviours and the dopamine receptor DRD 4 may contribute to the understanding of human behaviour

    Thanks!!
    No probs.

    e) The easiest one to remember, mountain gorillas live in a group called a troop. One dominant silverback male with a group of females. Allows for extended care of the young + the young can learn from parents and learn from other members of the species, as well as protection for the entire group, easier spotting of predators, protection of territories as well as shared info about resources such as food sources.

    f) Well i sort of have trouble with this a bit as well. Basically, those with different ranges of DRD4 receptors and dopamine levels in the brain can be researched, such as the genes coding for the receptors (low and high levels of these receptors cause diff hevaiours in individuals). This could provide genes that cause specific behaviours called gene-linked behaviours.

    Thats all i got for f tbh.
 
 
 
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