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    Wow - 16 pages of PY4 here!
    Time has gone by so quick :moon:
    Keep on posting people
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    (Original post by jabed786)
    Im not finding it too hard tbh lol. But I've only memorised 5 essays so far.
    I find that the studies lend themselves to becoming my essay plan. e.g.

    Copson = the effectiveness of offender profiling.

    I do need to get a move on though Mainly because I still havent written all the essays out.

    You know for you emotions and memory essay - did you just talk about Repression and Flashbulb memories or did you have anything else? Coz so far I have some detailed stuff on Repression and Flashbulbs but my word count is only around 600.
    Yep only got flashbulb memory and repression. I think I had fugue too but it confuses me so I left it!
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    I've learnt theories of crime now

    Early biological = Lorenz/Gall/Lambroso
    Genetic = Jacobs/Katz/Taylor
    Testosterone = Berman/Raine et al
    Psychodynamic = Freud/Hoffman
    Differential Association Theory = Sunderland


    I'm just going to learn the studies and psychologists mainly, I can make evaluation up
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    (Original post by maximillian)
    does anyone have marked model answers that they would kindly share with me?! i have a load but i dont think there that strong! im doing abnormal, forensic, memory and of course the controversies! would be forever appreciated!!!! x
    I have one for depression somewhere that I got 24/25 for or something I'll try finding it and typing it up
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    (Original post by mel0n)
    I've learnt theories of crime now

    Early biological = Lorenz/Gall/Lambroso
    Genetic = Jacobs/Katz/Taylor
    Testosterone = Berman/Raine et al
    Psychodynamic = Freud/Hoffman
    Differential Association Theory = Sunderland


    I'm just going to learn the studies and psychologists mainly, I can make evaluation up
    Oh for my theories of crime is different to yours:
    Psychodyanmic - Bowlby's attatchment stuff vs Rutter
    Biology - Crowe/Ainsworth
    Social learning - Bandura and Berkowitz
    Sociocultural - Farrington

    ocassionally evaluated research and overal eval was it would be reductionist to believe one theory was the only reason for crime.

    For your Decision making did you use:
    Majority influence - asch
    Minority influence - moschivichi (however you spell his name)
    Defender characteristics - race/beauty.
    I found it really hard to be evaluative in that essay - like other than criticising some of the research I didnt know what else to do

    What question do you hope comes up in the exam? I would like treatment/punishment or EWT.
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    (Original post by jabed786)
    Oh for my theories of crime is different to yours:
    Psychodyanmic - Bowlby's attatchment stuff vs Rutter
    Biology - Crowe/Ainsworth
    Social learning - Bandura and Berkowitz
    Sociocultural - Farrington

    ocassionally evaluated research and overal eval was it would be reductionist to believe one theory was the only reason for crime.

    For your Decision making did you use:
    Majority influence - asch
    Minority influence - moschivichi (however you spell his name)
    Defender characteristics - race/beauty.
    I found it really hard to be evaluative in that essay - like other than criticising some of the research I didnt know what else to do

    What question do you hope comes up in the exam? I would like treatment/punishment or EWT.
    I have Moscovici and also Nemeth & Brilmayer for minority influence, Tanford & Penrod for majority influence, and for characteristics of D I have Castelliw, Baron & Byrne and also Stuart :/

    might not remember them all, just been through treatments
    Beccaria, Hollin.

    Zero Tolerance = New York Case study
    CBT = Rohde et al and Keen
    Token Economy = Hobbs and Halt
    Castration = Danish case study and US/Europe case study.

    Sorry hahaha just writing it but I dunno why. I think I've forgotten theories now lol :/
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    I hope bias diagnostic systems doesn't come up for abnormality :mad: worst ever and it'll feel like answering an extra controversy!
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    (Original post by mel0n)
    I have one for depression somewhere that I got 24/25 for or something I'll try finding it and typing it up
    cheers dude appreciated!!!!!! but if anyone else has model answers that have been marked please dont be shy haha x
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    I've forgotten all of memory sorry for so many consecutive points I'm so scared
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    (Original post by mel0n)
    I've forgotten all of memory sorry for so many consecutive points I'm so scared
    Oh the irony! :p:

    Come to think of it... I'm finding it hard to memorise these memory studies as well.

    I am seriously hoping lots of people do bad in this exam so its easier to get an A.
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    (Original post by maximillian)
    cheers dude appreciated!!!!!! but if anyone else has model answers that have been marked please dont be shy haha x
    Sorry for any typos im just typng it really quickly and cba even punctuating properly!!

    Causes of depression -


    Abnormal Brain Structures. Using MRI scans, Sheline compared the brains of 20 depressed patients with a control group and found that all had a reduction in the core nucleus of the amygdala. Shaha - MRI scans and smaller hippocampus in 18 depressed.

    Both studiees = absolute so create strong support for the theory. Good scientific valiudity cos of controlled, measurable and objective methodology. however, sample sizes were all small meaning there is generalisation problems. Aldridge found that all the depressed patientrs were either on med or had previously been so therefore cause and effect is hard to ensure as the medication could have caused the structural changes rather than the depression doing so. The theory is reductionist too as it ignored psychological and environmental factors, reducing the cause of such a complex disorder down to a sole biological factor

    Neurochemical theory. depression is the result of faulty function of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and/or serotonin/

    Evidence supporting cmoes from various drugs - Antri depressants increase levels of noradrenalise and serotoinin in depressed patiens ansd reduce the symptoms of depression. SSRI's like Prozac block the reuptake of serotonin and are effective in treating depression implying that serotonin has a role in depression.

    A strength of the theory is that is uses objective, measurable methods like ECT which adhere to strict scientific principles and allow quantitative data analysis, therefore good scientific validity and firm concs can be made. However, findings from drug studies are not absolute and there are indibvidual differences; not everyone with low levels of serotionin has depression so cause and effect is hard to infer.

    Psychodynamic explanation. Based on Freud's ideas that depression like grief occurs as a reaction to the loss of an importasnt relationshup. Causdes by anger turned inawards and the event triggering this is loss. An outward expression of this anger is unacceptable to the superego and this process operates at an unconscious level.

    A strength is that it produces qualitative indepth analysis and uses methods like case studies concerned with the indivitual. Also an interesting alternative and very descriptive dealing with thoughts feelings and emotions, whcih is surely what depression is about. Less reductionist than some theories as it considers biological and environmental factors.

    Hwoever, freud argues that depressed people express anger and hostility towards themselves but Weissman Klerkman and Paykel found that pepole express this to those closest and that many depressed people haven't even experienced loss, which goes against the basic assumptions of the theory. Also unfalisifiable due to the vague and poorly specified notions, and since falsifiability is an important criterion for a theory or study this means that the explanation is generally less accepted than others.

    Cognitive explanation: proposed by beck - depression is a disorder of thinking, it is not events but the way we think about the ecvents that causes depression.
    Beck uses the negative cognitive triad to explain depression, which refers to three elemtns : depressed person's view of themselves, the world and the future. Therefore negfative schemas trigger the cognitiive triad.

    Good face validity and accounts for individual differences cos it tells you why some become depressed and others dont, and also has good ecological validity due to being apliued to various situations. However, it is an abstract concept not open to scientific analysis and has been criticised for placing too much emphasis on internal mental processes, neglevting environmental factors and so is reductionist.

    Also, most evidence suggests that negative thoguhts and attitudes are caused by depression rather then opposite direction of causality therefore cuse and effect is hard to establish. Girgus and Seligman found that a negative attributional style in older children predicted the development of depressive symtpomgs in response to stressful life events therefore negative thoughts may make people vulnerable to depression.
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    (Original post by jabed786)
    Oh the irony! :p:

    Come to think of it... I'm finding it hard to memorise these memory studies as well.

    I am seriously hoping lots of people do bad in this exam so its easier to get an A.
    How much of memoiry do you know? Can you remind me what other topics you're doing? :o:

    And hahaha yeah I see what you mean :o: I want about 85% to get an A* buit i dont think i'll get itt

    Sorry about me awful typing and lack of correcting it i just cba
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    (Original post by mel0n)
    I hope bias diagnostic systems doesn't come up for abnormality :mad: worst ever and it'll feel like answering an extra controversy!
    I hate controversies! they are the hardest out of all the questions, also I dont even know what sort of definitions they will look for in that section.
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    (Original post by mel0n)
    How much of memoiry do you know? Can you remind me what other topics you're doing? :o:

    And hahaha yeah I see what you mean :o: I want about 85% to get an A* buit i dont think i'll get itt

    Sorry about me awful typing and lack of correcting it i just cba
    I do Memory/Forensics/Relationships and bloody controversies.

    Not so well. I've memorised the MSM and Alternatives to MSM but thats it for now.

    If I every wanted an A* Id need 97% ... I'm obviously going to get that :cool: ..






    NOT :woo:
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    LETS REVIEW EVERYONES PROGRESS!

    Out of the 20 (or 21) essays, how many do you feel like you know well?
    I know about 7.
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    (Original post by jabed786)
    LETS REVIEW EVERYONES PROGRESS!

    Out of the 20 (or 21) essays, how many do you feel like you know well?
    I know about 7.
    Lmao, about 4?
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    (Original post by mel0n)
    Lmao, about 4?
    Get your asian ass into gear mel0n
    gfmorgfehad'ofhgreiufjnsdkohger; jhnrws\adcgfDBN SDEWHFWEIF CASJCKHSD SWA. kwjferkhf cask;xBKJ xajdbw s/cad'goq bsK hb xfnmjhrfdg lubhnfmb sd



    thats me frustating over how we are going to succeed in this exam.
    Also do you think the examiners/chief examiners have been following this thread? :confused: because if you type 'py4' on google, this thread is like the second link! They should just give us 100% in the paper for our dedication to discussing the exam.
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    Haha I'm not sure! Could be a possibility :p: teachers might have come across it

    Also, I'm hoping for a question on nature v nurture that would make my day
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    P.s how do you go about evaluation in the controversies ??
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    (Original post by mel0n)
    Haha I'm not sure! Could be a possibility :p: teachers might have come across it

    Also, I'm hoping for a question on nature v nurture that would make my day
    Really? I dont like that essay - I dont know where to start with it *cough cough* could you maybe briefly tell me what you wrote.

    As for evaluation - this is exactly why I dont like controversies! Not sure how to evaluate :confused: But my teacher said there is more A03 than A02 which means examiners look for references to theories/research.
    I think with ao2 its all about concluding what a piece of research says.
    e.g.

    The diathesis-stress model .... This suggests that perhaps both nature and nurture interact with each other and so, one dimension isnt the lone cause of behaviour.

    or

    Blah blah blah et al..... This supports the idea that Kohlbergs study wasnt really ignorant of women since only a few studies found gender differences. Therefore his study is perhaps not gender biased.

    I think thats ao2 anyway


    EDIT: Just checked the specimen paper.... Seems like All the stuff about 'elaborating' and explaining is A02
    and A03 is "Evidence is clearly interpreted and clearly analysed. Conflicting arguments are presented in a structured manner that directly
    and accurately addresses the question an reaches a reasoned conclusion. Range and depth of evidence is displayed though not
    necessarily in equal measure.Appropriate terminology is used throughout."
    There is no A01 in the controversies

    So maybe the examples I gave are A03

    I am confused

    I hope culture bias comes up or free will determinsim
 
 
 
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